Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Factors associated with low serum retinol levels in children aged 6–24 months in a rural South African community

  • Mieke Faber (a1) and AJ Spinnler Benadé (a1)

Abstract

Objective

To identify risk factors for variation in serum retinol levels in children younger than 2 years of age in a rural South African community.

Design

Children (n=97), 6–24 months of age, were divided into two groups according to their serum retinol levels, using 20 μg dl−1 as the cut-off point. The chi-square test, Fischer exact two-tailed test and analysis of variance were used to identify related variables which were significantly different between the two groups. To evaluate simultaneously the association between several potential risk factors and low serum retinol levels, a multiple regression model for categorical data was developed which included potential risk factors that were statistically significant in the bivariate analysis as the independent variables, and either low or normal vitamin A status as the dependent variable.

Results

There was an association between serum retinol levels and: (i) the place of birth (hospital vs. home deliveries); (ii) the attitude of the care-giver towards family life; and (iii) the health status of the child. Although not included in the multiple variable model because of small numbers, all children who had a previous episode of measles, all underweight children, and all children of widowed care-givers were in the low serum retinol group.

Conclusions

The care-giver's attitude towards family life was positively associated with the child's vitamin A status, while home deliveries were associated with a low vitamin A status.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Factors associated with low serum retinol levels in children aged 6–24 months in a rural South African community
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Factors associated with low serum retinol levels in children aged 6–24 months in a rural South African community
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Factors associated with low serum retinol levels in children aged 6–24 months in a rural South African community
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email mieke.faber@mrc.ac.za

References

Hide All
1South African Vitamin A Consultative Group (SAVACG). Anthropometric, vitamin A, iron and immunisation coverage status in children aged 6–71 months in South Africa, 1994. S. Afr. Med. J. 1996; 86: 354–7.
2West, KP Jr, Sommer, A. Delivery of Oral Doses of Vitamin A to Prevent Vitamin A Deficiency and Nutritional Deficiency: a State-of-the-Art Review. United Nations ACC/SCN Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 2. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization, 1987.
3Van Stuijvenberg, ME, Kvalsvig, JD, Faber, M, Kruger, M, Kenoyer, DG, Benadé, AJS. Effect of iron-, iodine-, and β-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 69: 497503.
4UNICEF. Strategy for Improved Nutrition of Children and Women in Developing Countries. UNICEF: New York, 1990.
5Nestel, P, Herrera, MG, El Amin, A, Fawzi, W, Mohammed, KA, Weld, L.Risk factors associated with xerophthalmia in northern Sudan. J. Nutr. 1993; 123: 2115–21.
6Hussain, A, Kvale, G.Environmental conditions, health behavior, and mortality in siblings as risk indicators of night blindness. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1996; 54: 309–12.
7Ahmed, F, Khan, MR, Faruque, O, Taj, S, Hyderi, T, Jackson, AA. Serum retinol is influenced by social factors and antioxidant nutrients among adolescent girls in urban Bangladesh. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1998; 49: 3944.
8Rosen, DS, Sloan, NL, del Rosario, A, de la Paz, TC. Risk factors for vitamin A deficiency in rural areas of the Philippines. J. Trop. Pediatr. 1994; 40: 82–7.
9Faber, M, Benadé, AJS. Nutritional status and dietary practices of 4–24-month-old children from a rural South African community. Public Health Nutr. 1999; 2: 179–85.
10Faber, M, Oelofse, A, Benadé, AJS. A model for a community-based growth monitoring system. Afr. J. Health Sci. 1998; 5: 72–8.
11Catignani, GL, Bieri, JG. Simultaneous determination of retinol and α-tocopherol in serum or plasma by liquid chromatography. Clin. Chem. 1983; 29: 708–12.
12Jelliffe, DB, Jelliffe, EFP. Anthropometry: major measurements. In: Jelliffe, DB, Jelliffe, EFP, eds. Community Nutritional Assessment, 1st edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989; 68104.
13Gross, R, Kielman, A, Korte, R, Schoeneberger, H, Schultink, W. Guidelines for Nutrition Baseline Surveys in Communities, Version 1.2. Thailand: TW System (Thailand) Co., Ltd, 1997.
14Hamill, PVV, Drizd, TA, Johnson, CL, Reed, RB, Roche, AF, Moore, WM. Physical growth: National Center for Health Statistics percentiles. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1979; 32: 607–29.
15Campbell, CC. Food insecurity: a national outcome or a predictor variable? J. Nutr. 1991; 121: 408–15.
16Range, SKK, Naved, R, Bhattarai, S. Child Care Practices Associated with Positive and Negative Nutritional Outcomes for Children in Bangladesh: a Descriptive Analysis. FCND Discussion Paper No. 24. Washington, DC: Food Composition and Nutrition Division, 1997.
17Zeitlin, MF. Child Care and Nutrition: the Findings from Positive Deviance Research. Medford, MA: Tufts University, School of Nutrition, 1994.
18Faber, M, Oelofse, A, Kriek, AJ, Benadé, AJS. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in a low socio-economic urban and a low socio-economic rural area. S. Afr. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1997; 9: 4351.
19Lloyd, CB, Gage-Brandon, AJ. Women's role in maintaining household: family welfare and sexual inequality in Ghana. Popul. Stud. 1993; 47: 115–31.
20Hussain, A, Kvåle, G.Serum vitamin A in relation to socio-economic, demographic and dietary characteristics in Bangladeshi children. Acta Paediatr. 1996; 85: 971–6.
21Faber, M, Smuts, CM, Benadé, AJS. Dietary intake of primary school children in relation to food production in a rural area in KwaZulu-Natal. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1999; 50: 5764.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Factors associated with low serum retinol levels in children aged 6–24 months in a rural South African community

  • Mieke Faber (a1) and AJ Spinnler Benadé (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.