1.Baghurst, K & Binns, C (2003) Food for Health. Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults. A Guide to Healthy Eating. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing/National Health and Medical Research Council.
2.Srinath Reddy, K & Katan, MB (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Public Health Nutr 7, 167–186.
3.Willett, WC (2005) Diet and cancer: an evolving picture. JAMA 293, 233–234.
4.Ford, E & Mokdad, AH (2001) Fruit and vegetable consumption and diabetes mellitus incidence among US adults. Prev Med 32, 33–39.
5.Montonen, J, Jarvinen, R, Heliovaara, M, Reunanen, A, Aromaa, A & Knekt, P (2005) Food consumption and the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 441–448.
6.Michaud, DS, Giovannucci, EL, Ascherio, A, Rimm, EB, Forman, MR, Sampson, L & Willett, WC (1998) Associations of plasma carotenoid concentrations and dietary intake of specific carotenoids in samples of two prospective cohort studies using a new carotenoid database. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 283–290.
7.Heaney, RP (2006) Nutrition, chronic disease, and the problem of proof. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 471–472.
8.Schatzkin, A & Kipnis, V (2004) Could exposure assessment problems give us wrong answers to nutrition and cancer questions? J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 1564–1565.
9.Ireland, P, Jolley, D, Giles, G, O’Dea, K, Powles, J, Rutishauser, I, Wahlqvist, ML & Williams, J (1994) Development of the Melbourne FFQ: a food frequency questionnaire for use in an Australian prospective study involving an ethnically diverse cohort. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 3, 19–31.
10.MacInnis, RJ & English, DR (2004) Making the most of cohort studies: choosing between case–cohort and nested case–control designs. Aust Epidemiol 11, 26–29.
11.Thomas, J, Kline, M, Schiller, S, Ellerbe, P, Sniegoski, L, Duewer, D & Sharpless, KE (1996) Certification of fat soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum: Standard Reference Material 968b. Anal Bioanal Chem 356, 1–9.
12.Su, Q, Rowley, KG & O’Dea, K (1999) Stability of individual carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in human plasma during exposure to light and after extraction. J Chromatogr B 729, 191–198.
13.Su, Q, Balazs, ND, Daskalakis, M & Rowley, KG (2003) Improved quantification of retinol, tocopherol and carotenoid in human plasma by HPLC using retinol acetate as internal standard. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 12, Suppl., S63.
14.Hunter, D (1998) Biochemical indicators of dietary intake. In Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed., pp. 174–243 [WC Willett, editor]. New York: Oxford University Press.
16.Holland, B, Welch, AA, Unwin, ID, Buss, DH, Paul, AA & Southgate, DAT (1993) McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 5th ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
17.Lewis, J, Milligan, G & Hunt, A (1995) NUTTAB95 Nutrient Data Table for Use in Australia. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
18.Willett, WC (editor) (1998) Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
19.Rosner, B & Willett, WC (1998) Interval estimates for correlation coefficients corrected for within-person variation: implications for study design and hypothesis testing. Am J Epidemiol 127, 377–386.
20.Yeum, K, Booth, S, Sadowski, J, Liu, C, Tang, G, Krinsky, N & Russell, RM (1996) Human plasma carotenoid response to the ingestion of controlled diets high in fruits and vegetables. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 594–602.
21.Enger, SM, Longnecker, MP, Shikany, JM, Swenseid, ME, Chen, MJ, Harper, JM & Haile, RW (1995) Questionnaire assessment of intake of specific carotenoids. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4, 201–205.
22.van Kappel, AL, Steghens, J-P, Zeleniuch-Jacqotte, A, Chajés, V, Toniolo, P & Riboli, E (2001) Serum carotenoids as biomarkers of fruit and vegetable consumption in the New York Women’s Health Study. Public Health Nutr 4, 829–835.
23.Kaaks, R, Riboli, E & Sinha, R (1997) Biochemical markers of dietary intake. In Applications of Biomarkers in Cancer Epidemiology, pp. 103–126 [P Toniolo, P Boffetta, DEG Shuker, N Rothman, B Hulka and N Pearce, editors]. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
24.Brady, WE, Mares-Perlman, JA, Bowen, P & Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, M (1996) Human serum carotenoid concentrations are related to physiologic and lifestyle factors. J Nutr 126, 129–137.
25.Mangels, AR, Holden, JM, Beecher, GR, Forman, MR & Lanza, E (1993) Carotenoid content of fruit and vegetables: an evaluation of analytical data. J Am Diet Assoc 93, 284–296.
26.Tucker, KL, Chen, H, Vogel, S, Wilson, PW, Schaefer, EJ & Lammi-Keefe, CJ (1999) Carotenoid intakes, assessed by dietary questionnaire, are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations in an elderly population. J Nutr 129, 438–445.
27.McNaughton, SA, Marks, GC, Gaffney, P, Williams, G & Green, A (2005) Validation of a food-frequency questionnaire assessment of carotenoid and vitamin E intake using weighed food records and plasma biomarkers: the method of triads model. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 211–218.
28.Forman, MR, Lanza, E, Yong, LC, Holden, JM, Graubard, BI, Beecher, GR, Meltiz, M, Brown, ED & Smith, JC (1993) The correlation between two dietary assessments of carotenoid intake and plasma carotenoid concentrations: application of a carotenoid food-composition database. Am J Clin Nutr 58, 519–524.
29.Yong, L, Forman, MR, Beecher, GR, Graubard, BI, Campbell, WS, Reichman, ME, Taylor, PR, Lanza, E, Holden, JM & Judd, JT (1994) Relationship between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of carotenoids in premenopausal women: application of the USDA-NCI carotenoid food-composition database. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 223–230.
30.El-Sohemy, A, Baylin, A, Kabagambe, E, Ascherio, A, Speigelman, D & Campos, H (2002) Individual carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma as biomarkers of dietary intake. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 172–179.
31.Rock, CL, Flatt, SW, Wright, FA, Faerber, S, Newman, V, Kealey, S & Pierce, JP (1997) Responsiveness of carotenoids to a high vegetable diet intervention designed to prevent breast cancer recurrence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6, 616–623.
32.van het Hof, KH, West, CE, Weststrate, JA & Hautvast, JG (2000) Dietary factors that affect the bioavailability of carotenoids. J Nutr 130, 503–506.
33.Fielding, JM, Rowley, KG, Cooper, P & O’Dea, K (2005) Increases in plasma lycopene concentration after consumption of tomatoes cooked with olive oil. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 14, 131–136.
34.Gartner, C, Stahl, W & Sies, H (1997) Lycopene is more bioavailable from tomato paste than from fresh tomatoes. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 116–122.
35.Michaud, DS, Feskanich, D, Rimm, EB, Colditz, GA, Speizer, FE & Willett, WC (2000) Intake of specific carotenoids and risk of lung cancer in 2 prospective US cohorts. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 990–997.
36.Al-Delaimy, WK, Ferrari, P, Slimani, N et al. (2005) Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 1387–1396.
37.Coyne, T, Ibiebele, TI, McNaughton, SA, Rutishauser, IHE, O’Dea, K, Hodge, AM, McClintock, C, Findlay, MG & Lee, A (2005) Evaluation of brief dietary questions to estimate vegetable and fruit consumption – using serum carotenoids and red-cell folate. Public Health Nutr 8, 298–308.
38.Gibson, RS (1990) Principles of Nutritional Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
39.Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ, Underwood, BA, Speizer, FE, Rosner, B & Hennekens, CH (1983) Validation of a dietary questionnaire with plasma carotenoid and α-tocopherol levels. Am J Clin Nutr 38, 631–639.
40.El-Sohemy, A, Baylin, A, Ascherio, A, Kabagambe, E, Spiegelman, D & Campos, H (2001) Population-based study of α- and γ-tocopherol in plasma and adipose tissue as biomarkers of intake in Costa Rican adults. Am J Clin Nutr 74, 356–363.
41.Brunner, E, Stallone, D, Juneja, M, Bingham, S & Marmot, M (2001) Dietary assessment in Whitehall II: comparison of 7d diet diary and food-frequency questionnaire and validity against biomarkers. Br J Nutr 86, 405–414.
42.Kardinaal, AF, van’t Veer, P, Brants, HA, van den Berg, H, van Schoonhoven, J & Hermus, RJ (1995) Relations between antioxidant vitamins in adipose tissue, plasma, and diet. Am J Epidemiol 141, 440–450.