1.Gluckman, PD, Hanson, MA & Beedle, AS (2007) Early life events and their consequences for later disease: a life history and evolutionary perspective. Am J Hum Biol 19, 1–19.
2.Benton, D (2008) Micronutrient status, cognition and behavioral problems in childhood. Eur J Nutr 47, Suppl. 3, 38–50.
3.Black, MM (2008) Effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency on brain development in children. Food Nutr Bull 29, 2 Suppl., S126–S131.
4.Greenblatt, JM, Huffman, LC & Reiss, AL (1994) Folic acid in neurodevelopment and child psychiatry. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 18, 647–660.
5.Scholl, TO & Johnson, WG (2000) Folic acid: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 5 Suppl., 1295S–1303S.
6.Lumley, J, Watson, L, Watson, M et al. (2001) Periconceptional supplementation with folate and/or multivitamins for preventing neural tube defects. Cochrane Database Syst Rev issue 3, CD001056.
7.Lee, JI, Lee, JA & Lim, HS (2005) Effect of time of initiation and dose of prenatal iron and folic acid supplementation on iron and folate nutriture of Korean women during pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 843–849.
8.Craciunescu, CN, Brown, EC, Mar, MH et al. (2004) Folic acid deficiency during late gestation decreases progenitor cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in fetal mouse brain. J Nutr 134, 162–166.
9.Julvez, J, Fortuny, J, Mendez, M et al. (2009) Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy and four-year-old neurodevelopment in a population-based birth cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 23, 199–206.
10.Roza, SJ, van Batenburg-Eddes, T, Steegers, EAP et al. (2010) Maternal folic acid supplement use in early pregnancy and child behavioural problems: The Generation R Study. Br J Nutr 103, 445–452.
11.Schlotz, W, Jones, A, Phillips, DIW et al. (2010) Lower maternal folate status in early pregnancy is associated with childhood hyperactivity and peer problems in offspring. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 51, 594–602.
12.Veena, SR, Krishnaveni, GV, Srinivasan, K et al. (2010) Higher maternal plasma folate but not vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy are associated with better cognitive function scores in 9- to 10-year-old children in South India. J Nutr 140, 1014–1022.
13.Wehby, GL & Murray, JC (2008) The effects of prenatal use of folic acid and other dietary supplements on early child development. Matern Child Health J 12, 180–187.
14.Dobo, M & Czeizel, AE (1998) Long-term somatic and mental development of children after periconceptional multivitamin supplementation. Eur J Pediatr 157, 719–723.
15.Tamura, T, Goldenberg, RL, Chapman, VR et al. (2005) Folate status of mothers during pregnancy and mental and psychomotor development of their children at five years of age. Pediatrics 116, 703–708.
16.Chatzi, L, Plana, E, Daraki, V et al. (2009) Metabolic syndrome in early pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Am J Epidemiol 170, 829–836.
17.Koutra, K, Chatzi, L, Roumeliotaki, T et al. (2012) Socio-demographic determinants of infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age: Mother–Child Cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Infant Behav Dev 35, 48–59.
18.Bayley, N (2006) Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd ed. [PsychCorp, editor]. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment Inc.
19.Royston, P & Wright, EM (1998) How to construct ‘normal ranges’ for fetal variables. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 11, 30–38.
20.Joshi, S, Rao, S, Girigosavi, S et al. (2004) Differential effects of fish oil and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy in rats on cognitive performance and serum glucose in their offspring. Nutrition 20, 465–472.
21.Middaugh, LD, Grover, TA, Blackwell, LA et al. (1976) Neurochemical and behavioral effects of diet related perinatal folic acid restriction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 5, 129–134.
22.Ferguson, SA, Berry, KJ, Hansen, DK et al. (2005) Behavioral effects of prenatal folate deficiency in mice. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 73, 249–252.
23.Troen, AM, Chao, WH, Crivello, NA et al. (2008) Cognitive impairment in folate-deficient rats corresponds to depleted brain phosphatidylcholine and is prevented by dietary methionine without lowering plasma homocysteine. J Nutr 138, 2502–2509.
24.Kim, JM, Lee, H & Chang, N (2002) Hyperhomocysteinemia due to short-term folate deprivation is related to electron microscopic changes in the rat brain. J Nutr 132, 3418–3421.
25.Kruman, II, Mouton, PR, Emokpae, R Jr et al. (2005) Folate deficiency inhibits proliferation of adult hippocampal progenitors. Neuroreport 16, 1055–1059.
26.Tamura, T & Picciano, MF (2006) Folate and human reproduction. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 993–1016.
27.Bailey, LB & Gregory, JF 3rd (1999) Folate metabolism and requirements. J Nutr 129, 779–782.
28.Fernstrom, JD (2000) Can nutrient supplements modify brain function? Am J Clin Nutr 71, 6 Suppl., S1669–S1675.
29.Bassett, AS, Chow, EW, Weksberg, R et al. (2002) Schizophrenia and genetics: new insights. Curr Psychiatry Rep 4, 307–314.
30.Suzuki, MM & Bird, A (2008) DNA methylation landscapes: provocative insights from epigenomics. Nat Rev Genet 9, 465–476.
31.Singh, SM, Murphy, B & O'Reilly, RL (2003) Involvement of gene–diet/drug interaction in DNA methylation and its contribution to complex diseases: from cancer to schizophrenia. Clin Genet 64, 451–460.
32.McNulty, H & Scott, JM (2008) Intake and status of folate and related B-vitamins: considerations and challenges in achieving optimal status. Br J Nutr 99, Suppl. 3, S48–S54.
33.Petrakos, G, Panagopoulos, P, Koutras, I et al. (2006) A comparison of the dietary and total intake of micronutrients in a group of pregnant Greek women with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 127, 166–171.
34.Timmermans, S, Jaddoe, VWV, Hofman, A et al. (2009) Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study. Br J Nutr 102, 777–785.
35.Pastor-Valero, M, Navarrete-Munoz, EM, Rebagliato, M et al. (2011) Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and anthropometric measures at birth in a cohort of pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Br J Nutr 105, 1352–1360.
36.Williams, LJ, Rasmussen, SA, Flores, A et al. (2005) Decline in the prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly by race/ethnicity: 1995–2002. Pediatrics 116, 580–586.
37.Boulet, SL, Yang, Q, Mai, C et al. (2008) Trends in the postfortification prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in the United States. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol 82, 527–532.
38.Sweeney, MR, Staines, A, Daly, L et al. (2009) Persistent circulating unmetabolised folic acid in a setting of liberal voluntary folic acid fortification. Implications for further mandatory fortification? BMC Public Health 9, 295.
39.Morris, MC, Evans, DA, Bienias, JL et al. (2005) Dietary folate and vitamin B12 intake and cognitive decline among community-dwelling older persons. Arch Neurol 62, 641–645.
40.Troen, AM, Mitchell, B, Sorensen, B et al. (2006) Unmetabolized folic acid in plasma is associated with reduced natural killer cell cytotoxicity among postmenopausal women. J Nutr 136, 189–194.
41.Cole, BF, Baron, JA, Sandler, RS et al. (2007) Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 297, 2351–2359.
42.Yajnik, CS, Deshpande, SS, Jackson, AA et al. (2008) Vitamin B12 and folate concentrations during pregnancy and insulin resistance in the offspring: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Diabetologia 51, 29–38.
43.Lawrance, AK, Deng, L & Rozen, R (2009) Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency and low dietary folate reduce tumorigenesis in Apc min/+ mice. Gut 58, 805–811.
44.Hoyo, C, Murtha, AP, Schildkraut, JM et al. (2011) Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST). BMC Public Health 11, 46.