1.Ania, BJ, Suman, VJ, Fairbanks, VF, Rademacher, DM & Melton, LJ III (1997) Incidence of anemia in older people: an epidemiologic study in a well defined population. J Am Geriatr Soc 45, 825–831.
2.Semba, RD, Shah, N, Klein, RS, Mayer, KH, Schuman, P & Vlahov, D; Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemiology Research Study Group (2002) Prevalence and cumulative incidence of and risk factors for anemia in a multicenter cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -uninfected women. Clin Infect Dis 34, 260–266.
3.Nissenson, AR, Goodnough, LT & Dubois, RW (2003) Anemia: not just an innocent bystander? Arch Intern Med 163, 1400–1404.
4.Caro, JJ, Salas, M, Ward, A & Goss, G (2001) Anemia as an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with cancer: a systemic, quantitative review. Cancer 91, 2214–2221.
5.Mozaffarian, D, Nye, R & Levy, WC (2003) Anemia predicts mortality in severe heart failure: the Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation (PRAISE). J Am Coll Cardiol 41, 1933–1939.
6.Ania, BJ, Suman, VJ, Fairbanks, VF & Melton, LJ III (1994) Prevalence of anemia in medical practice: community versus referral patients. Mayo Clin Proc 69, 730–735.
7.Salive, ME, Cornoni-Huntley, J, Guralnik, JM, Phillips, CL, Wallace, RB, Ostfeld, AM & Cohen, HJ (1992) Anemia and hemoglobin levels in older persons: relationship with age, gender, and health status. J Am Geriatr Soc 40, 489–496.
8.Daly, MP (1989) Anemia in the elderly. Am Fam Physician 39, 129–136.
9.World Health Organization (1968) Nutritional Anaemias. Report of a WHO Scientific Group. WHO Technical Report Series no. 405. Geneva: WHO.
10.Wang, LD (2005) Chinese Nutrition and Health Survey 2002. Beijing: People’s Health Publishing House.
11.Smith, DL (2000) Anemia in the elderly. Am Fam Physician 62, 1565–1572.
12.Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (1991) Food Composition Table. Beijing: People’s Health Publishing House.
13.He, YN, Zhai, FY & Ge, KY (2005) Establishing Chinese Dietary Balance Index. J Hyg Res 34, 208–211.
14.Expert Committee of the Chinese Dietary Guidelines (1999) Dietary Guidelines in China. Beijing: China Procuratorial Press.
15.Gamble, MV, Palafox, NA, Dancheck, B, Ricks, MO, Briand, K & Semba, RD (2004) Relationship of vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency, and inflammation to anemia among preschool children in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 1396–1401.
16.Lin, LM, Song, XF, Liu, YL, Ma, GF, Tan, ZW, Jiang, JX, Liu, M, Liu, CY & Wang, I (2003) Relationship between vitamin A deficiency and anemia for Chinese children. Chin J Child Health Care 4, 242–244.
17.Dreyfuss, ML, Stoltzfus, RJ, Shrestha, JB, Pradhan, EK, LeClerq, SC, Khatry, SK, Shrestha, SR, Katz, J, Albonico, M & West, KP Jr (2002) Hookworms, malaria and vitamin A deficiency contribute to anemia and iron deficiency among pregnant women in the plains of Nepal. J Nutr 130, 2527–2536.
18.Semba, RD & Bloem, MW (2002) The anemia of vitamin A deficiency: epidemiology and pathogenesis. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 271–281.
19.Chinese Academy of Nutrition (2000) Chinese Dietary Reference Intake. Beijing: Chinese Light Industry Publishing House.
20.Hurrell, RF (1997) Bioavailability of iron. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, Suppl. 1, S4–S8.
21.Lyle, RM, Weaver, CM, Sedlock, DA, Rajaram, S, Martin, B & Melby, CL (1992) Iron status in exercising women: the effect of oral iron therapy vs increased consumption of muscle foods. Am J Clin Nutr 56, 1049–1055.
22.Patterson, AJ, Brown, WJ & Roberts, DCK (1998) Development, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in women. Nutr Res 18, 489–502.