Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Disadvantaged black and coloured infants in two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa differ in micronutrient status

  • A Oelofse (a1), JMA Van Raaij (a2), AJS Benadé (a1), MA Dhansay (a1), JJM Tolboom (a3) and JGAJ Hautvast (a2)...

Abstract

Objectives:

To determine the nutritional and health status of urban infants in two disadvantaged communities in the Western Cape, South Africa with special reference to micronutrient status. The results of this study will serve to plan an intervention study in these communities in the same age group.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

Two disadvantaged urban black and ‘coloured’ communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

Subjects:

Sixty infants aged 6–12 months from each community.

Outcome measures:

Dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, micronutrient status and psychomotor development.

Results:

Stunting and underweight were more prevalent in coloured infants (18% and 7%, respectively) than in black infants (8% and 2%, respectively). Anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb)<11 g dl−1 ) was prevalent in 64% of coloured and 83% of black infants. Iron-deficiency anaemia ( Hb<11 g dl−1 and ferritin < 10 ng ml−1) was found in 32% of coloured infants and in 46% of black infants. Zinc deficiency was prevalent in 35% and 33% of the coloured and black infants, respectively. Marginal vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol < 20 μg dl−1) was observed in 23% of black infants compared with 2% of coloured infants. Of black infants, 43% and of coloured infants 6% were deficient in two or more micronutrients. Six per cent of coloured infants had C-reactive protein concentrations above 5 mg l−1 compared with 38% of the black infants. The dietary intake of micronutrients was in general lower in black infants than in coloured infants. The overall psychomotor development, assessed by the Denver Developmental Screening Test, was different between the two groups. The coloured infants scored higher in three out of the four categories as well as in their overall score.

Conclusions:

This study shows that information on stunting and wasting only in urban disadvantaged infants is not sufficient to make recommendations about specific community intervention programmes. Information on the micronutrient status, independent of wasting and stunting, is necessary to design nutrition programmes for different communities. The study also showed a substantially higher prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies among black infants.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Disadvantaged black and coloured infants in two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa differ in micronutrient status
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Disadvantaged black and coloured infants in two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa differ in micronutrient status
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Disadvantaged black and coloured infants in two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa differ in micronutrient status
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email aoelofse@mrc.ac.za

References

Hide All
1Kikafunda, JK, Walker, AF, Collett, D, Tumwine, JK. Risk factors for early childhood malnutrition in Uganda. Pediatrics 1998; 102: E45.
2Getaneh, T, Assefa, A, Tadesse, Z. Protein energy malnutrition in urban children: prevalence and determinants. Ethiopian Med. J. 1998; 36: 153–66.
3Dannhauser, A, Bester, C, Joubert, G, Badenhorst, P, Slabber, M, Badenhorst, A, Du Toit, E, Barnard, H, Botha, P, Nogabe, L. Nutritional status of pre-school children in informal settlement areas near Bloemfontein, South Africa. Public Health Nutr. 2000; 3: 303–12.
4Faber, M & Benadé, AJS. Nutritional status and dietary practices of 4–24 month old children from a rural South African community. Public Health Nutr. 1999; 2: 179–85.
5Jaspers, SShoham, J. Targeting the vulnerable: a review of the necessity and feasibility of targeting vulnerable households. Disasters 1999; 23: 359–72.
6Vazir, S, Naidu, AN, Vidyasagar, P. Nutritional status, psychosocial development and the home environment of Indian rural children. Indian Pediatr. 1998; 35: 959–66.
7Faber, M, Oelofse, A, Kriek, JA, Benadé, AJS. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in a low socio-economic urban and a low socio-economic rural area. S. Afr. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1997; 9: 4351.
8Oelofse, A, Faber, M, Benadé, JG, Benadé, AJS, Kenoyer, DG. The nutritional status of a rural community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: the Ndunakazi project. Central Afr. J. Med. 1999; 45: 14–9.
9Jelliffe, DB, Jelliffe, EF. Community Nutritional Assesment, With Special Reference to Less Developed Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
10Dean, AG, Dean, JA, Burton, AH, Dicker, RC. Epi Info, Version 6.04a: A World Processing, Database and Statistics Program for Epidemiolgogy on Microcomputers. Stone Mountain, GA: USD, Inc, 1993.
11Gorstein, J, Sullivan, K, Yip, R, De Onis, M, Trowbridge, F, Fajans, P, Clugston, G. Issues in assessment of nutritional status using anthropometry. Bull. World Health Org. 1989; 72(2), 273–83.
12De Onis, M, Monteiro, C, Akré, J, Clugston, G. The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: an overview from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth. Bull. World Health Org. 1993; 71: 703–12.
13Catignani, GL, Bieri, JG. Simultaneous determination of retinol and alpha-tocopherol in serum or plasma by liquid chromatography. Clin. Chem. 1983; 29(4): 708–12.
14Suitor, CW, Olson, C, Wilson, J. Nutrition care during pregnancy and lactation: new guidelines from the Institute of Medicine. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1993; 93: 478–9.
15Wood, CS, Isaacs, PC, Jensen, M, Hilton, HC. Exclusively breast-fed infants: growth and caloric intake. Pediatr. Nurs. 1988; 14: 117–24.
16Langenhoven, ML, Kruger, M, Gouws, E, Faber, M. Medical Research Council Food Composition Tables, 3rd ed. Tygerberg, South Africa: MRC, 1996.
17Langenhoven, ML, Kruger, M, Gouws, E, Faber, M. Medical Research Council Food Quantities Manual, 3rd ed, Tygerberg, South Africa: MRC, 1996.
18Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs, Food and Nutrition Board Commission on the Life Sciences National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.
19Frankenburg, WK, Dodds, JB. The Denver Developmental Screening Test. J. Pediatr, 1967; 71: 181–91.
20World Health Organization (WHO). Nutritional Anaemia. WHO Technical Report Series No. 3. Geneva: WHO, 1972.
21Pilch, SM, Senti, FR, eds. Assessment of the Iron Nutritional Status of the US Population Based on Data Collected in the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1976–1980. Bethesda, MD: Life Services Research Office, Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology, 1984.
22World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Indicators for Assessing Vitamin A Deficiency and Their Application in Monitoring and Evaluating Intervention Programmes. Report on a joint WHO/UNICEF consultation, Geneva, 9–11 November 1992. Review version. Geneva: WHO, 1994; 156.
23Pepys, MB. C-reactive protein fifty years on. Lancet 1981; 1(8221): 653–7.
24Ulijaszek, SJ. Between-population variation in pre-adolescent growth. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 48: S514.
25Droomers, M, Gross, R, Schultink, W, Sastroamidjojo, S. High socio economic class preschool children from Jakarta, Indonesia are taller and heavier than NCHS reference population. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995; 49: 740–4.
26Oelofse, A, Jooste, PL, Steyn, K, Badenhorst, CJ, Langenhoven, ML. The lipid and lipoprotein profile of the African population of the Cape Peninsula. S. Afr. Med. J. 1996; 86: 162–6.
27Tomkins, A. Nutritional status and severity of diarrhoea among pre-school children in rural Nigeria. Lancet 1981; 1: 860–2.
28Sepulveda, J, Willett, W, Munoz, A. Malnutrition and diarrhoea: a longitudinal study among urban Mexican children. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1988; 127: 365–76.
29Black, RE. Would control of childhood infectious diseases reduce malnutrition?. Acta Paediatr. Scand. Suppl. 1991; 374: 133–40.
30Black, E. Therapeutic and preventive effects of zinc on serious childhood infectious diseases in developing countries. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998; 68: 476S–9S.
31Nestel, P, Malera, A, Rosado, J, Mora, JO. Vitamin A deficiency and anaemia among children 12–71 months old in Honduras. Rev. Panam. Salud Publica. 1999; 6(1): 3443.
32Dudley, L, Hussey, G, Huskisson, J, Kessow, G. Vitamin A status, other risk factors and acute respiratory infection morbidity in children. S. Afr. Med. J. 1997; 87: 6570.
33Solomons, NW. Competitive interaction of iron and zinc in the diet: consequences for human nutrition. J. Nutr. 1996; 116(6): 927–35.
34Lasky, RE, Klein, RE, Yarbrough, C, Engle, PL, Lechting, A, Martorell, R. The relationship between physical growth and infant behavioural development in Guatemala. Child.Dev. 1981; 52: 219–26.
35Martorell, R, Rivera, J, Kaplowitz, H, Pollitt, E. Long term consequences of growth retardation during early childhood. In: Hernandez, M, Argente, J, eds. Human Growth: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1992; 143–9.
36Grantham-McGregor, SM, Walker, SP. Stunting and mental development in children. Nutr. Res. 1992; 16: 1821–8.
37Pollit, E, Husaini, MA, Harahap, H, Halati, S, Nugraheni, A, Sherlock, AO. Stunting and delayed motor development in rural West Java. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 1994; 6: 627–35.
38Powell, CA, Walker, SP, Himes, JH, Fletcher, PDGrantham-McGregor, SM. Relationship between physical growth, mental development and nutritional supplementation in stunted children: the Jamaican study. Acta.Paediatr. 1995; 84: 22–9.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed