1. Singhal, A (2016) The role of infant nutrition in the global epidemic of non-communicable disease. Proc Nutr Soc 75, 162–168.
2. Cameron, N & Bogin, B (2012) Human Growth and Development. New York: Academic Press.
3. Adair, LS, Fall, CH, Osmond, C et al. (2013) Associations of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with adult health and human capital in countries of low and middle income: findings from five birth cohort studies. Lancet 382, 525–534.
4. Singhal, A (2006) Early nutrition and long-term cardiovascular health. Nutr Rev 64, 5 Pt 2, S44–S49.
5. Black, RE, Victora, CG, Walker, SP et al. (2013) Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet 382, 427–451.
6. Drewnowski, A & Popkin, BM (1997) The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutr Rev 55, 31–43.
7. Doak, CM, Adair, LS, Bentley, M et al. (2005) The dual burden household and the nutrition transition paradox. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 129–136.
8. Popkin, BM (2006) Global nutrition dynamics: the world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with noncommunicable diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 289–298.
9. McGarvey, ST (1991) Obesity in Samoans and a perspective on its etiology in Polynesians. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 6 Suppl., 1586S–1594S.
10. Keighley, ED, McGarvey, ST, Quested, C et al. (2007) Nutrition and health in modernizing Samoans: temporal trends and adaptive perspectives. In Health Change in the Asia-Pacific Region: Biocultural and Epidemiological Approaches, pp. 147–191 [R Ohtsuka and SJ Ulijaszek, editors]. New York: Cambridge University Press.
11. Hawley, NL, Minster, RL, Weeks, DE et al. (2014) Prevalence of adiposity and associated cardiometabolic risk factors in the Samoan genome-wide association study. Am J Hum Biol 26, 491–501.
12. Baker, PT, Hanna, JM & Baker, TS (1986) The Changing Samoans: Behavior and Health in Transition, vol. 5. New York: Oxford University Press.
13. NCD, Risk Factor Collaboration (2016) Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. Lancet 387, 1377–1396.
14. Choy, CC, Desai, MM, Park, JJ et al. (2017) Child, maternal and household-level correlates of nutritional status: a cross-sectional study among young Samoan children. Public Health Nutr 20, 1235–1247.
15. Baylin, A, Deka, R, Tuitele, J et al. (2013) INSIG2 variants, dietary patterns and metabolic risk in Samoa. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 101–107.
16. DiBello, JR, McGarvey, ST, Kraft, P et al. (2009) Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans. J Nutr 139, 1933–1943.
17. Wang, D, Hawley, NL, Thompson, AA et al. (2017) Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic outcomes among adult Samoans in a cross-sectional study. J Nutr 174, 628–635.
18. Birch, LL & Fisher, JO (1998) Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 101, 539–549.
19. Savage, JS, Fisher, JO & Birch, LL (2007) Parental influence on eating behavior: conception to adolescence. J Law Med Ethics 35, 22–34.
20. Corvalan, C, Kain, J, Weisstaub, G et al. (2009) Impact of growth patterns and early diet on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in young children from developing countries. Proc Nutr Soc 68, 327–337.
21. Samoa Bureau of Statistics (2015) Samoa Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Apia, Samoa: Samoa Demographic and Health Survey, Government of Samoa.
22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Anthropometry Procedures Manual. Atlanta, GA: CDC.
23. Swinburn, BA, Ley, SJ, Carmichael, HE et al. (1999) Body size and composition in Polynesians. Int J Obes Related Metab Disord 23, 1178–1183.
24. World Health Organization (2011) Haemoglobin Concentrations for the Diagnosis of Anaemia and Assessment of Severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. Geneva: WHO.
25. de Onis, M (2006) WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age, Weight-for-Length, Weight-for-Height and Body Mass Index-for-Age. Geneva: WHO.
26. Janz, KF, Broffitt, B & Levy, SM (2005) Validation evidence for the Netherlands physical activity questionnaire for young children: the Iowa bone development study. Res Q Exerc Sport 76, 363–369.
27. Bielemann, RM, Reichert, FF, Paniz, VM et al. (2011) Validation of the Netherlands physical activity questionnaire in Brazilian children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 8, 45.
28. Samoa Bureau of Statistics (2011) Population and Housing Census 2011: Analytical Report. Apia, Samoa: Census-Surveys and Demography Division, SBS, Government of Samoa.
29. Newby, PK & Tucker, KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 62, 177–203.
30. Willett, WC, Howe, GR & Kushi, LH (1997) Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 4 Suppl., 1220S–1228S.
31. Cattell, RB (1966) The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behav Res 1, 245–276.
32. Hu, FB, Rimm, E, Smith-Warner, SA et al. (1999) Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 243–249.
33. Dignan, C, Burlingame, B, Kumar, S et al. (2004) The Pacific Islands Food Composition Tables. Rome: FAO.
34. Fiti-Sinclair, R (2004) Knowledge, Attitudes, Belief and Practices related to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables in Samoa. Apia, Samoa: FAO, Sub-regional Office for the Pacific Islands.
35. Seiden, A, Hawley, NL, Schulz, D et al. (2012) Long-term trends in food availability, food prices, and obesity in Samoa. Am J Hum Biol 24, 286–295.
36. Snowdon, W, Raj, A, Reeve, E et al. (2013) Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands. Global Health 9, 53.
37. Smithers, LG, Golley, RK, Brazionis, L et al. (2011) Characterizing whole diets of young children from developed countries and the association between diet and health: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 69, 449–467.
38. Wall, CR, Thompson, JM, Robinson, E et al. (2013) Dietary patterns of children at 3.5 and 7 years of age: a New Zealand birth cohort study. Acta Paediatr 102, 137–142.
39. Northstone, K & Emmett, PM (2008) Are dietary patterns stable throughout early and mid-childhood? A birth cohort study. Br J Nutr 100, 1069–1076.
40. Durao, C, Severo, M, Oliveira, A et al. (2017) Association of maternal characteristics and behaviours with 4-year-old children’s dietary patterns. Matern Child Nutr 13, e12278.
41. Jacka, FN, Ystrom, E, Brantsaeter, AL et al. (2013) Maternal and early postnatal nutrition and mental health of offspring by age 5 years: a prospective cohort study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 52, 1038–1047.
42. Shin, KO, Oh, SY & Park, HS (2007) Empirically derived major dietary patterns and their associations with overweight in Korean preschool children. Br J Nutr 98, 416–421.
43. Friedman, LS, Lukyanova, EM, Serdiuk, A et al. (2009) Social-environmental factors associated with elevated body mass index in a Ukrainian cohort of children. Int J Pediatric Obes 4, 81–90.
44. Lanigan, J & Singhal, A (2009) Early nutrition and long-term health: a practical approach. Proc Nutr Soc 68, 422–429.
45. Anzman, SL, Rollins, BY & Birch, LL (2010) Parental influence on children’s early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention. Int J Obes (Lond) 34, 1116–1124.
46. Britto, PR, Lye, SJ, Proulx, K et al. (2017) Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. Lancet 389, 91–102.
47. Leventakou, V, Roumeliotaki, T, Sarri, K et al. (2016) Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother–child cohort study in Crete. Br J Nutr 115, 1431–1437.
48. Bailey, RL, West, KP Jr & Black, RE (2015) The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies. Ann Nutr Metab 66, 22–33.
49. Garrow, JS (1995) Validation of methods for estimating habitual diet: proposed guidelines. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 231–232.
50. Hoffman, K, Schulze, MB, Scienkiewitz, A et al. (2004) Application of a new statistical method to derive dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 159, 935–944.
51. Schulze, MB & Hoffman, K (2006) Methodological approaches to study dietary patterns in relation to risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Br J Nutr 95, 860–869.