Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors

  • Anja Biltoft-Jensen (a1), Margit V Groth (a1), Jeppe Matthiessen (a1), Henrik Wachmann (a2), Tue Christensen (a1) and Sisse Fagt (a1)...

Abstract

Objective

To study the association between diet quality and the new health messages in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, i.e. ‘Eat a varied diet’, ‘Engage in regular physical activity’ and ‘Maintain a healthy body weight’.

Design/setting/subjects

The study was cross-sectional, comprising a random sample of 3151 Danish adults aged 18–75 years. Dietary intake was estimated using a 7 d pre-coded food diary. Information on social background, leisure-time physical activity, height, body weight and intention to eat healthily was obtained by in-person interviews. Logistic regression models were used to explore the independent effects of energy intake, leisure-time physical activity, food variety, BMI, age, gender, education, household income, location of residence and intention to eat healthily on the likelihood to have high diet quality measured by an index based on the intake of dietary fibre and saturated fat.

Results

Greater food variety (OR = 1·32 for women, 1·13 for men), high leisure-time physical activity (OR = 2·20 for women, 1·91 for men), frequent intentions to eat healthily (OR = 8·19 for women, 5·40 for men) and low energy intake (OR=0·78 for women, 0·85 for men) were significantly associated with high diet quality. For women education was positively associated with diet quality. The study did not demonstrate any association between BMI and diet quality.

Conclusion

The health behaviours ‘Eat a varied diet’ and ‘Engage in regular physical activity’ were positively associated with healthy eating. The dietary habits reported were strongly influenced by personal intentions. Thus, the biggest challenge for public health nutritionists will be to reach non-compliers who seldom have intentions to eat healthily.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email apbj@food.dtu.dk

References

Hide All
1. US Department of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture (2005) Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. http://www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines (accessed February 2008).
2.Astrup, AV, Andersen, NL, Stender, S & Trolle, E (2005) Kostrådene 2005 (Dietary Guidelines 2005; report in Danish with an English summary). Copenhagen: Danmarks Fødevareforskning og Ernæringsrådet.
3.McCrory, MA, Fuss, PJ, McCallum, JE, Yao, M, Vinken, AG, Hays, NP & Roberts, SB (1999) Dietary variety within food groups: association with energy intake and body fatness in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 440447.
4.Thiele, S, Mensink, GB & Beitz, R (2004) Determinants of diet quality. Public Health Nutr 7, 2937.
5.Fogelholm, M, Kolset, SO, Rasmussen, LB, Sjöström, M & Yngve, A (2000) Physical activity – an essential part of dietary recommendations. Scand J Nutr 44, 6970.
6.Groth, MV & Matthiessen, J (2001) Do physically active people have a better diet? Report from a Nordic Seminar, Lahti, Finland, February 2000. In Physical Activity: A Part of Healthy Eating, pp. 4147 [M Fogelholm, editor]. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.
7.Groth, MV & Fagt, S (2003) Danskernes kostvaner. Måltidsvaner, holdninger, sociale forskelle og sammenhæng med anden livsstil (Dietary Habits of Danes. Mealhabits, Attitudes, Social Differences and Association to other Lifestyle; report in Danish with an English summary). Copenhagen: Fødevaredirektoratet.
8.Johansson, L, Thelle, DS, Solvoll, K, Bjorneboe, GE & Drevon, CA (1999) Healthy dietary habits in relation to social determinants and lifestyle factors. Br J Nutr 81, 211220.
9.Shahar, D, Shai, I, Vardi, H, Shahar, A & Fraser, D (2005) Diet and eating habits in high and low socioeconomic groups. Nutrition 21, 559566.
10.Groth, MV, Fagt, S & Brondsted, L (2001) Social determinants of dietary habits in Denmark. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 959966.
11.Biltoft-Jensen, A, Fagt, S, Groth, MV, Matthiessen, J, Wachmann, HC & Christensen, T (2008) The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality. Br J Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version).
12.Lyhne, N, Christensen, T, Groth, MV et al. (2005) Danskernes kostvaner 2000–2002. Hovedresultater (Dietary Habits of Danes 2000–2002. Main Results; report in Danish with an English summary). Copenhagen: Danmarks Fødevareforskning.
13.Goldberg, GR, Black, AE, Jebb, SA, Cole, TJ, Murgatroyd, PR, Coward, WA & Prentice, AM (1991) Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Deviation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. Eur J Clin Nutr 45, 569581.
14.Saltin, B & Grimby, G (1968) Physiological analysis of middle-aged and old former athletes. Comparison with still active athletes of the same ages. Circulation 38, 11041115.
15.World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Geneva: WHO.
16.Ajzen, I (1985) From intention to actions: a theory of planned behavior. In Action–Control: From Cognition to Behavior, pp. 1139 [J Kuhl and J Beckman, editors]. Heidelberg: Springer.
17.McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Stampfer, MJ, Rosner, BA, Hu, FB, Hunter, DJ, Variyam, JN, Colditz, GA & Willett, WC (2000) Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 12141222.
18.McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Rimm, EB, Giovannucci, EL, Ascherio, A, Variyam, JN, Spiegelman, D, Stampfer, MJ & Willett, WC (2000) Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and risk of major chronic disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 12231231.
19.Fogli-Cawley, JJ, Dwyer, JT, Saltzman, E, McCullough, ML, Troy, LM & Jacques, PF (2006) The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index: development and application. J Nutr 136, 29082915.
20.Fung, TT, McCullough, ML, Newby, PK, Manson, JE, Meigs, JB, Rifai, N, Willett, WC & Hu, FB (2005) Diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 163173.
21.Harnack, L, Nicodemus, K, Jacobs, DR Jr & Folsom, AR (2002) An evaluation of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in relation to cancer occurrence. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 889896.
22.Hearty, AP, McCarthy, SN, Kearney, JM & Gibney, MJ (2007) Relationship between attitudes towards healthy eating and dietary behaviour, lifestyle and demographic factors in a representative sample of Irish adults. Appetite 48, 111.
23.Kant, AK & Graubard, BI (2005) A comparison of three dietary pattern indexes for predicting biomarkers of diet and disease. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 294303.
24.Johansson, G, Wikman, A, Ahren, AM, Hallmans, G & Johansson, I (2001) Underreporting of energy intake in repeated 24-hour recalls related to gender, age, weight status, day of interview, educational level, reported food intake, smoking habits and area of living. Public Health Nutr 4, 919927.
25.Johansson, L, Solvoll, K, Bjorneboe, GE & Drevon, CA (1998) Under- and overreporting of energy intake related to weight status and lifestyle in a nationwide sample. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 266274.
26.Rasmussen, LB, Matthiessen, J, Biltoft-Jensen, A & Tetens, I (2007) Characteristics of misreporters of dietary intake and physical activity. Public Health Nutr 10, 230237.
27.Lissner, L, Heitmann, BL & Bengtsson, C (2000) Population studies of diet and obesity. Br J Nutr 83, Suppl. 1, S21S24.
28.Heitmann, BL & Lissner, L (1995) Dietary underreporting by obese individuals – is it specific or non-specific? BMJ 311, 986989.
29.Verplanken, B & Faes, S (1999) Good intentions, bad habits, and effects of forming implementation intentions on healthy eating. Eur J Soc Psychol 29, 591604.
30.Nooijer, J, Vet, E, Brug, J & de Vries, NK (2006) Do implementation intentions help to turn good intentions into higher fruit intakes? J Nutr Educ Behav 38, 2529.
31.Gollwitzer, PM (1993) Goal achievement: the role of intentions. Eur Rev Soc Psychol 4, 141185.
32.Kvaavik, E, Lien, N, Tell, GS & Klepp, KI (2005) Psychosocial predictors of eating habits among adults in their mid-30s: the Oslo Youth Study follow-up 1991–1999. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2, 9.
33.Armitage, CJ (2004) Evidence that implementation intentions reduce dietary fat intake: a randomized trial. Health Psychol 23, 319323.
34.Ogden, J, Karim, L, Choudry, A & Brown, K (2007) Understanding successful behaviour change: the role of intentions, attitudes to the target and motivations and the example of diet. Health Educ Res 22, 397405.
35.Margetts, BM, Thompson, RL, Speller, V & McVey, D (1998) Factors which influence ‘healthy’ eating patterns: results from the 1993 Health Education Authority health and lifestyle survey in England. Public Health Nutr 1, 193198.
36.Gfk Danmark, A/S (1998) Brug af opskrifter i danske hjem (Use of Recipes in Danish Homes). Copenhagen: Gfk Danmark A/S.
37.Larson, NI, Perry, CL, Story, M & Neumark-Sztainer, D (2006) Food preparation by young adults is associated with better diet quality. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 20012007.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed