1.Gauthier, S, Reisberg, B, Zaudig, M et al. (2006) Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet 367, 1262–1270.
2. Moise P, Scwarzinger M, Um M-Y & Dementia Experts’ Group (2004) Dementia Care in 9 OECD Countries: A Comparative Analysis. OECD Health Working Papers no. 13, DELSA/ELSA/WD/HEA/(2004)4. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/10/52/33661491.pdf
4.Hou, CE, Yaffe, K, Perez-Stable, EJ & Miller, BL (2006) Frequency of dementia etiologies in four ethnic groups. Dementia Geriatr Cogn Dis 22, 42–47.
5.Jellinger, KA (2006) Clinicopathological analysis of dementia disorders in the elderly – an update. J Alzheimers Dis 9, 61–70.
6.Kalaria, RN (2003) Vascular factors in Alzheimer’s disease. Int Psychogeriatr 15, Suppl. 1, 47–52.
7.Napoli, C & Palinski, W (2005) Neurodegenerative diseases: insights into pathogenic mechanisms from atherosclerosis. Neurobiol Aging 26, 293–302.
8.Nash, DT & Fillit, H (2006) Cardiovascular disease risk factors and cognitive impairment. Am J Cardiol 97, 1262–1265.
9.Stampfer, MJ (2006) Cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease: common links. J Intern Med 260, 211–223.
10.White, L & Launer, L (2006) Relevance of cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic cerebrovascular disease to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease: a review of accrued findings from the Honolulu–Asia Aging Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 20, S79–S83.
11.Espino, DV, Lichtenstein, MJ, Palmer, RF & Hazuda, HP (2001) Ethnic differences in Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores: where you live makes a difference. J Am Geriatr Soc 49, 538–548.
12.Ishizaki, J, Meguro, K, Ambo, H, Shimada, M, Yamaguchi, S, Hayasaka, C, Komatsu, H, Sekita, Y & Yamadori, A (1998) A normative, community-based study of Mini-Mental State in elderly adults: the effect of age and educational level. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 53, P359–P363.
13.Monsch, AU, Foldi, NS, Ermini-Funfschilling, DE, Berres, M, Taylor, KI, Seifritz, E, Stahelin, HB & Spiegel, R (1995) Improving the diagnostic accuracy of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Acta Neurol Scand 92, 145–150.
14.Stewart, R, Johnson, J, Richards, M, Brayne, C & Mann, A (2002) The distribution of Mini-Mental State Examination scores in an older UK African-Caribbean population compared to MRC CFA study norms. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 17, 745–751.
15.Fountoulakis, KN, Tsolaki, M, Paulopoulos, H & Kazis, A (2002) Validation of the epidemiological dementia index in geriatric outpatients. Int Psychogeriatr 12, 195–208.
16.de Craen, AJ, Heeren, TJ & Gussekloo, J (2003) Accuracy of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in a community sample of the oldest old. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 18, 63–66.
17.Haller, J, Weggemans, RM, Ferry, M & Guigoz, Y (1996) Mental health: Mini-Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score of elderly Europeans in the SENECA study of 1993. Eur J Clin Nutr 50, Suppl. 2, S112–S116.
18.Osborn, DP, Fletcher, AE, Smeeth, L, Stirling, S, Nunes, M, Breeze, E, Siu-Woon Ng, E, Bulpitt, CJ, Jones, D & Tulloch, A (2002) Geriatric Depression Scale scores in a representative sample of 14 545 people aged 75 and over in the United Kingdom: results from the MRC Trial of Assessment and Management of Older People in the Community. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 17, 375–382.
19.Yesavage, JA, Brink, TL, Rose, TL, Lum, O, Huang, V, Adey, M & Leirer, VO (1982) Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 17, 37–49.
20.Fountoulakis, KN, Tsolaki, M, Iacovides, A, Yesavage, J, O’Hara, R, Kazis, A & Ierodiakonou, C (1999) The validation of the short form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) in Greece. Aging (Milano) 11, 367–372.
21.Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C & Trichopoulos, D (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. New Engl J Med 348, 2599–2608.
22.Bingham, S & Riboli, E (2004) Diet and cancer – the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Nat Rev Cancer 4, 206–215.
23.Riboli, E, Hunt, KJ, Slimani, N et al. (2002) European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection. Public Health Nutr 5, 1113–1124.
24.Gnardellis, C, Trichopoulou, A, Katsouyanni, K, Polychronopoulos, E, Rimm, EB & Trichopoulos, D (1995) Reproducibility and validity of an extensive semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among Greek school teachers. Epidemiology 6, 74–77.
25.Goldbohm, RA, van’t Veer, P, van den Brandt, PA, van’t Hof, MA, Brants, HA, Sturmans, F & Hermus, RJ (1995) Reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire and stability of dietary habits determined from five annually repeated measurements. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 420–429.
26.Willett, WC, Sampson, L, Browne, ML, Stampfer, MJ, Rosner, B, Hennekens, CH & Speizer, FE (1988) The use of a self-administered questionnaire to assess diet four years in the past. Am J Epidemiol 127, 188–199.
27.Trichopoulou, A & Georga, K (editors) (2004) Composition Tables of Simple and Composite Foods. Athens: Parisianos.
28.Willett, W & Stampfer, M (1998) Implications of total energy intake for epidemiological analyses. In Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed., pp. 273–301 [W Willett, editor]. New York: Oxford University Press.
29.Trichopoulou, A, Gnardellis, C, Lagiou, A, Benetou, V & Trichopoulos, D (2000) Body mass index in relation to energy intake and expenditure among adults in Greece. Epidemiology 11, 333–336.
30.Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Leon, AS, Jacobs, DR Jr, Montoye, HJ, Sallis, JF & Paffenbarger, RS Jr (1993) Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25, 71–80.
31.Crum, RM, Anthony, JC, Bassett, SS & Folstein, MF (1993) Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA 269, 2386–2391.
32.Folstein, MF, Folstein, SE & McHugh, PR (1975) ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12, 189–198.
33.Park, HL, O’Connell, JE & Thomson, RG (2003) A systematic review of cognitive decline in the general elderly population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 18, 1121–1134.
34.Tombaugh, TN & McIntyre, NJ (1992) The Mini-Mental State Examination: a comprehensive review. J Am Geriatr Soc 40, 922–935.
35.Pasquier, F, Boulogne, A, Leys, D & Fontaine, P (2006) Diabetes mellitus and dementia. Diabetes Metab 32, 403–414.
36.van den Berg, E, Kessels, RP, Kappelle, LJ, de Hann, EH & Biessels, GJ (2006) Type 2 diabetes, cognitive function and dementia: vascular and metabolic determinants. Drugs Today (Barc) 42, 741–754.
37.Ganguli, M, Du, Y, Dodge, HH, Ratcliff, GG & Chang, CC (2006) Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in late life: a prospective epidemiological study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63, 153–160.
38.Green, RC, Cupples, LA, Kurz, A et al. (2003) Depression as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease: the MIRAGE Study. Arch Neurol 60, 753–759.
39.Lichtenberg, PA, Ross, T, Millis, SR & Manning, CA (1995) The relationship between depression and cognition in older adults: a cross-validation study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 50, P25–P32.
40.Cervilla, JA, Prince, M, Joels, S, Lovestone, S & Mann, A (2000) Long-term predictors of cognitive outcome in a cohort of older people with hypertension. Br J Psychiatry 177, 66–71.
41.Forette, F, Seux, ML, Staessen, JA et al. (1998) Prevention of dementia in randomised double-blind placebo-controlled Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) trial. Lancet 352, 1347–1351.
42.Skoog, I & Gustafson, D (2006) Update on hypertension and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurol Res 28, 605–611.
43.Gunnell, D (2002) Can adult anthropometry be used as a ‘biomarker’ for prenatal and childhood exposures? Int J Epidemiol 31, 390–394.
44.Abbott, RD, White, LR, Ross, GW, Petrovitch, H, Masaki, KH, Snowdon, DA & Curb, JD (1998) Height as a marker of childhood development and late-life cognitive function: the Honolulu–Asia Aging Study. Pediatrics 102, 602–609.
45.Beeri, MS, Davidson, M, Silverman, JM, Noy, S, Schmeidler, J & Goldbourt, U (2005) Relationship between body height and dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 13, 116–123.
46.Jeong, SK, Kim, JM, Kweon, SS, Shin, MH, Seo, MW & Kim, YH (2005) Does arm length indicate cognitive and functional reserve? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 20, 406–412.
47.Buchman, AS, Schneider, JA, Wilson, RS, Bienias, JL & Bennett, DA (2006) Body mass index in older persons is associated with Alzheimer disease pathology. Neurology 67, 1949–1954.
48.Gustafson, D (2006) Adiposity indices and dementia. Lancet Neurol 5, 713–720.
49.Fratiglioni, L, Paillard-Borg, S & Winblad, B (2004) An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Lancet Neurol 3, 343–353.
50.Lautenschlager, NT & Almeida, OP (2006) Physical activity and cognition in old age. Curr Opin Psychiatry 19, 190–193.
51.Cotman, CW & Berchtold, NC (2002) Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends Neurosci 25, 295–301.
52.Juan, D, Zhou, DH, Li, J, Wang, JY, Gao, C & Chen, M (2004) A 2-year follow-up study of cigarette smoking and risk of dementia. Eur J Neurol 11, 277–282.
53.Ott, A, Andersen, K, Dewey, ME et al. (2004) Effect of smoking on global cognitive function in nondemented elderly. Neurology 62, 920–924.
54.Almeida, OP, Hulse, GK, Lawrence, D & Flicker, L (2002) Smoking as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease: contrasting evidence from a systematic review of case–control and cohort studies. Addiction 97, 15–28.
55.Letenneur, L, Larrieu, S & Barberger-Gateau, P (2004) Alcohol and tobacco consumption as risk factors of dementia: a review of epidemiological studies. Biomed Pharmacother 58, 95–99.
56.Sabbagh, MN, Lukas, RJ, Sparks, DL & Reid, RT (2002) The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, smoking, and Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis 4, 317–325.
57.Allam, MF, Campbell, MJ, Hofman, A, Del Castillo, AS & Fernandez-Crehuet Navajas, R (2004) Smoking and Parkinson’s disease: systematic review of prospective studies. Mov Disord 19, 614–621.
58.Scarmeas, N, Stern, Y, Tang, MX, Mayeux, R & Luchsinger, JA (2006) Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 59, 912–921.
59.Solfrizzi, V, Capurso, C & Panza, F (2006) Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 60, 620.
60.Solfrizzi, V, Colacicco, AM, D’Introno, A, Capurso, C, Torres, F, Rizzo, C, Capurso, A & Panza, F (2006) Dietary intake of unsaturated fatty acids and age-related cognitive decline: a 8·5-year follow-up of the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Neurobiol Aging 27, 1694–1704.
61.Solfrizzi, V, Colacicco, AM, D’Introno, A, Capurso, C, Del Parigi, A, Capurso, SA, Argentieri, G, Capurso, A & Panza, F (2006) Dietary fatty acids intakes and rate of mild cognitive impairment. The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Exp Gerontol 41, 619–627.
62.Solfrizzi, V, D’Introno, A, Colacicco, AM, Capurso, C, Del Parigi, A, Capurso, S, Gadaleta, A, Capurso, A & Panza, F (2005) Dietary fatty acids intake: possible role in cognitive decline and dementia. Exp Gerontol 40, 257–270.
63.Morris, MC, Evans, DA, Bienias, JL, Tangney, CC & Wilson, RS (2004) Dietary fat intake and 6-year cognitive change in an older biracial community population. Neurology 62, 1573–1579.
64.Kalmijn, S, Feskens, EJ, Launer, LJ & Kromhout, D (1997) Polyunsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and cognitive function in very old men. Am J Epidemiol 145, 33–41.
65.Heude, B, Ducimetiere, P & Berr, C (2003) Cognitive decline and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes – The EVA Study. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 803–808.
66.Morris, MC, Evans, DA, Bienias, JL, Tangney, CC, Bennett, DA, Aggarwal, N, Schneider, J & Wilson, RS (2003) Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60, 194–200.
67.Engelhart, MJ, Geerlings, MI, Ruitenberg, A, Van Swieten, JC, Hofman, A, Witteman, JC & Breteler, MM (2002) Diet and risk of dementia: does fat matter?: The Rotterdam Study. Neurology 59, 1915–1921.
68.Issa, AM, Mojica, WA, Morton, SC, Traina, S, Newberry, SJ, Hilton, LG, Garland, RH & Maclean, CH (2006) The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive function in aging and dementia: a systematic review. Dementia Geriatr Cogn Disord 21, 88–96.
69.Kalmijn, S, Launer, LJ, Ott, A, Witteman, JC, Hofman, A & Breteler, MM (1997) Dietary fat intake and the risk of incident dementia in the Rotterdam Study. Ann Neurol 42, 776–782.
70.Kalmijn, S, van Boxtel, MP, Ocke, M, Verschuren, WM, Kromhout, D & Launer, LJ (2004) Dietary intake of fatty acids and fish in relation to cognitive performance at middle age. Neurology 62, 275–280.
71.Morris, MC, Evans, DA, Bienias, JL, Tangney, CC, Bennett, DA, Wilson, RS, Aggarwal, N & Schneider, J (2003) Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 60, 940–946.
72.Reaven, PD, Grasse, BJ & Tribble, DL (1994) Effects of linoleate-enriched and oleate-enriched diets in combination with alpha-tocopherol on the susceptibility of LDL and LDL subfractions to oxidative modification in humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 14, 557–566.