1.Kant, AK (2004) Dietary patterns and health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 615–635.
2.Nkondjock, A & Ghadirian, P (2007) Diet quality and BRCA-associated breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 103, 361–369.
3.Patterson, RE, Haines, PS & Popkin, BM (1994) Diet quality index: capturing a multidimensional behavior. J Am Diet Assoc 94, 57–64.
4.Kant, AK, Schatzkin, A, Graubard, BI et al. (2000) A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. JAMA 283, 2109–2115.
5.Reedy, J, Mitrou, PN, Krebs-Smith, SM et al. (2008) Index-based dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer: the NIH–AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 168, 38–48.
6.Guenther, PM, Reedy, J & Krebs-Smith, SM (2008) Development of the Healthy Eating Index-2005. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 1896–1901.
7.McCullough, ML, Feskanich, D, Stampfer, MJ et al. (2002) Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1261–1271.
8.Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C et al. (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 348, 2599–2608.
9.Kennedy, ET, Ohls, J, Carlson, S et al. (1995) The Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 1103–1108.
10.Kim, S, Haines, PS, Siega-Riz, AM et al. (2003) The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) provides an effective tool for cross-national comparison of diet quality as illustrated by China and the United States. J Nutr 133, 3476–3484.
11.Clutter Snyder, D, Sloane, R, Haines, PS et al. (2007) The Diet Quality Index revised: a tool to promote and evaluate dietary change among older cancer survivors enrolled in a home-based intervention trial. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 1519–1529.
12.Dwyer, J, Cosentino, C, Li, D et al. (2002) Evaluating school-based interventions using the Healthy Eating Index. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 257–259.
13.Morey, M, Snyder, DC, Sloane, R et al. (2009) RENEW: a randomized clinical trial to improve function among older long-term survivors of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. JAMA 301, 1883–1891.
14.Couch, SC, Saelens, BE, Levin, L et al. (2008) The efficacy of a clinic-based behavioral nutrition intervention emphasizing a DASH-type diet for adolescents with elevated blood pressure. J Pediatr 152, 494–501.
15.Sarrafzadegan, N, Azadbakht, L, Mohammadifard, N et al. (2009) Do lifestyle interventions affect dietary diversity score in the general population? Public Health Nutr 12, 1–7.
16.Kennedy, ET, Bowman, SA, Spence, JT et al. (2001) Popular diets: correlation to health, nutrition, and obesity. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 411–420.
17.Haines, PS, Siega-Riz, AM & Popkin, BM (1999) The Diet Quality Index revised: a measurement instrument for populations. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 697–704.
18.Tur, JA, Romaguera, D & Pons, A (2005) The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I): is it a useful tool to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet? Br J Nutr 93, 369–376.
19.Neuhouser, ML, Patterson, RE, King, IB et al. (2003) Selected nutritional biomarkers predict diet quality. Public Health Nutr 6, 703–709.
20.Fung, TT, Hu, FB, McCullough, ML et al. (2006) Diet quality is associated with the risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 136, 466–472.
21.Gao, SK, Beresford, SA, Frank, LL et al. (2008) Modifications to the Healthy Eating Index and its ability to predict obesity: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 64–69.
22.Guo, X, Warden, BA, Paeratakul, S et al. (2004) Healthy Eating Index and obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 1580–1586.
23.Fung, TT, McCullough, ML, Newby, PK et al. (2005) Diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 163–173.
24.Shannon, J, Shikany, JM, Barrett-Connor, E et al. (2007) Demographic factors associated with the diet quality of older US men: baseline data from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. Public Health Nutr 10, 810–818.
25.Levitan, EB, Wolk, A & Mittleman, MA (2009) Consistency with the DASH diet and incidence of heart failure. Arch Intern Med 169, 851–857.
26.US Department of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture (2005) Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005, 6th ed. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
27.Britten, P, Marcoe, K, Yamini, S et al. (2006) Development of food intake patterns for the MyPyramid food guidance system. J Nutr Educ Behav 38, S78–S92.
29.Guenther, PM, Reedy, J, Krebs-Smith, SM et al. (2008) Evaluation of the Healthy Eating Index-2005. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 1854–1864.
31.Probst, YC & Tapsell, LC (2005) Overview of computerized dietary assessment programs for research and practice in nutrition education. J Nutr Educ Behav 37, 20–26.
32.Harrington, KF, Kohler, CL, McClure, LA et al. (2009) Fourth graders’ reports of fruit and vegetable intake at school lunch: does treatment assignment affect accuracy? J Am Diet Assoc 109, 36–44.
33.Ledikwe, JH, Smiciklas-Wright, H, Mitchell, DC et al. (2004) Dietary patterns of rural older adults are associated with weight and nutritional status. J Am Geriatr Soc 52, 589–595.
34.Miller, P, Demark-Wahnefried, W, Snyder, DC et al. (2008) Dietary supplement use among elderly, long-term cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv 2, 138–148.
35.Quatromoni, PA, Pencina, M, Cobain, MR et al. (2006) Dietary quality predicts adult weight gain: findings from the Framingham Offspring Study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 14, 1383–1391.
36.Yesavage, JA, Brink, TL, Rose, TL et al. (1982) Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 17, 37–49.
37.Folstein, MF, Folstein, SE & McHugh, PR (1975) ‘Mini-mental state’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12, 189–198.
38.Bailey, RL, Mitchell, DC, Miller, CK et al. (2007) A dietary screening questionnaire identifies dietary patterns in older adults. J Nutr 137, 421–426.
40.National Center for Health Statistics, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (1996) NHANES III Anthropometric Procedures (video). Stock number 017-022-01335-5. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
41.Jonnalagadda, SS, Mitchell, DC, Smiciklas-Wright, H et al. (2000) Accuracy of energy intake data estimated by a multiple-pass, 24-hour dietary recall technique. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 303–308; quiz 309–311.
42.Tran, KM, Johnson, RK, Soultanakis, RP et al. (2000) In-person vs telephone-administered multiple-pass 24-hour recalls in women: validation with doubly labeled water. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 777–783.
43.Guenther, PM, Reedy, J, Krebs-Smith, SM, et al. (2007) Development and Evaluation of the Healthy Eating Index-2005: Technical Report. Alexandria, VA: Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, US Department of Agriculture; available at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/HealthyEatingIndex.htm
44.Willett, WC, Howe, GR & Kushi, LH (1997) Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 1220S–1228S; discussion 1229S–1231S.
46.Moore, LV, Diez Roux, AV, Nettleton, JA et al. (2008) Associations of the local food environment with diet quality – a comparison of assessments based on surveys and geographic information systems: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol 167, 917–924.
47.Willett, WC, Sampson, L, Browne, ML et al. (1988) The use of a self-administered questionnaire to assess diet four years in the past. Am J Epidemiol 127, 188–199.
48.Goldbohm, RA, van 't Veer, P, van den Brandt, PA et al. (1995) Reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire and stability of dietary habits determined from five annually repeated measurements. Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 420–429.
49.Popkin, BM, Zizza, C & Siega-Riz, AM (2003) Who is leading the change? US dietary quality comparison between 1965 and 1996. Am J Prev Med 25, 1–8.
50.Bland, JM & Altman, DG (1997) Statistics notes: Cronbach’s alpha. BMJ 314, 572.
51.Popkin, BM, Haines, PS & Siega-riz, AM (1999) Dietary patterns and trends in the United States: the UNC-CH approach. Appetite 32, 8–14.
52.Moeller, SM, Reedy, J, Millen, AE et al. (2007) Dietary patterns: challenges and opportunities in dietary patterns research an experimental biology workshop, 1 April 2006. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 1233–1239.
53.Huot, I, Paradis, G, Receveur, O et al. (2004) Correlates of diet quality in the Quebec population. Public Health Nutr 7, 1009–1016.