2.National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel on Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health (1996) Physical activity and cardiovascular health. JAMA 276, 241–246.
3.Shiroma, EJ & Lee, I (2010) Physical activity and cardiovascular health: lessons learned from epidemiological studies across age, gender, and race/ethnicity. J Am Heart Assoc 122, 743–752.
4.Warburton, DER, Nicol, CW & Bredin, SSD (2006) Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence. CMAJ 174, 801–809.
5.Blair, SN, Cheng, Y & Holder, S (2001) Is physical activity or physical fitness more important in defining health benefits? Med Sci Sports Exerc 33, 6 Suppl., S379–S399.
6.Sallis, JF & Saelens, BE (2000) Assessment of physical activity by self-report: status, limitations, and future directions. Res Q Exerc Sport 71, 2 Suppl., S1–S14.
7.Craig, CL, Marshall, AL, Sjostrom, Met al. (2003) International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35, 1381–1395.
8.Hallal, PC, Gomez, LF, Parra, DCet al. (2010) Lessons learned after 10 years of IPAQ use in Brazil and Colombia. J Phys Act Health 7, Suppl. 2, S259–S264.
9.Downs, SH & Black, N (1998) The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health 52, 377–384.
10.Prince, SA, Adamo, KB, Hamel, MEet al. (2008) A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 5, 56.
11.Warburton, DR, Charlesworth, S, Ivey, Aet al. (2010) A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 7, 39.
12.Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Whitt, MCet al. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Exerc Sports 32, Suppl. 9, S498–S516.
14.Lipsey, MW & Wilson, DB (2001) Practical Meta-analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
15.Filliben, JJ (1975) The probability plot correlation coefficient test for normality. Technometrics 17, 111–117.
16.De Cocker, KA, Cardon, G & De Bourdeaudhuij, IM (2007) Pedometer-determined physical activity and its comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a sample of Belgian adults. Res Q Exerc Sport 78, 429–437.
17.De Cocker, KA, De Bourdeaudhuij, IM & Cardon, GM (2009) What do pedometer counts represent? A comparison between pedometer data and data from four different questionnaires. Public Health Nutr 12, 74–81.
18.Deng, HB, Macfarlane, DJ, Thomas, GNet al. (2008) Reliability and validity of the IPAQ-Chinese: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40, 303–307.
19.Dinger, MK, Behrens, TK & Han, JL (2006) Validity and reliability of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in college students. Am J Health Promot 37, 337–343.
20.Gauthier, AP, Lariviere, M & Young, N (2009) Psychometric properties of the IPAQ: a validation study in a sample of northern Franco-Ontarians. J Phys Act Health 6, Suppl. 1, S54–S60.
21.Hagstromer, M, Ainsworth, BE, Oja, Pet al. (2010) Comparison of a subjective and an objective measure of physical activity in a population sample. J Phys Act Health 7, 541–550.
22.Kolbe-Alexander, TL, Lambert, EV, Harkins, JBet al. (2006) Comparison of two methods of measuring physical activity in South African older adults. J Aging Phys Act 14, 98–114.
23.Kurtze, N, Rangul, V & Hustvedt, BE (2008) Reliability and validity of the international physical activity questionnaire in the Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT) population of men. BMC Med Res Methodol 8, 63.
24.Mader, U, Martin, BW, Schutz, Yet al. (2006) Validity of four short physical activity questionnaires in middle-aged persons. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38, 1255–1266.
25.van der Ploeg, HP, Tudor-Locke, C, Marshall, ALet al. (2010) Reliability and validity of the international physical activity questionnaire for assessing walking. Res Q Exerc Sport 81, 97–101.
26.Boon, RM, Hamlin, MJ, Steel, GDet al. (2010) Validation of the New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire (NZPAQ-LF) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-LF) with accelerometry. Br J Sports Med 44, 741–746.
27.Roman-Vinas, B, Serra-Majem, L, Hagstromer, Met al. (2010) International Physical Activity Questionnaire: reliability and validity in a Spanish population. Eur J Sport Sci 10, 297–304.
28.Bull, FC, Maslin, T & Armstrong, T (2009) Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ): nine country reliability and validity. J Phys Act Health 6, 790–804.
29.Hagstromer, M, Oja, P & Sjostrom, M (2006) The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ): a study of concurrent and construct validity. Public Health Nutr 9, 755–762.
30.Lachat, CK, Verstraeten, R, Khanh le, NBet al. (2008) Validity of two physical activity questionnaires (IPAQ and PAQA) for Vietnamese adolescents in rural and urban areas. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 5, 37.
31.Macfarlane, DJ, Lee, CC, Ho, EYet al. (2006) Convergent validity of six methods to assess physical activity in daily life. J Appl Physiol 101, 1328–1334.
32.Timperio, A, Salmon, J, Rosenberg, Met al. (2004) Do logbooks influence recall of physical activity in validation studies? Med Sci Sports Exerc 36, 1181–1186.
33.Vandelanotte, C, De Bourdeaudhuij, I, Sallis, JFet al. (2005) Reliability and validity of a computerized International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). J Phys Act Health 2, 63–75.
34.Ekelund, U, Sepp, H, Brage, Set al. (2006) Criterion-related validity of the last 7-day, short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Swedish adults. Public Health Nutr 9, 258–265.
35.Thuy, AB, Blizzard, L, Schmidt, Met al. (2010) Reliability and validity of the global physical activity questionnaire in Vietnam. J Phys Act Health 7, 410–418.
36.Hunter, JE, Schmidt, FL & Jackson, GB (1982) Meta-analysis: Cumulating Research Findings Across Studies. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
37.Hunter, JE & Schmidt, FL (2004) Methods of Meta-analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings, 2nd ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
38.Cohen, JA (1992) Power primer. Psychol Bull 112, 155–159.
39.Montoye, HJ, Kemper, HCG, Saris, WHMet al. (1996) Measuring Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
40.Washburn, RA, Heath, GW & Jackson, AW (2000) Reliability and validity issues concerning large-scale surveillance of physical activity. Res Q Exerc Sport 71, 2 Suppl., S104–S113.
41.Shephard, JR (2003) Limits to the measurement of habitual physical activity by questionnaires. Br J Sport Med 37, 197–206.
42.Bauman, A, Ainsworth, BE, Bull, Fet al. (2009) Progress and pitfalls in the use of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for adult physical activity surveillance. J Phys Act Health 6, Suppl. 1, S5–S8.
43.Hallal, CP, Victora, GC, Wells, CKJet al. (2004) Comparison of short and full-length International Physical Activity Questionnaires. J Phys Act Health 1, 227–234.
44.Heesch, CK, van Uffelen, GZ, Hill, LRet al. (2010) What do IPAQ questions mean to older adults? Lessons from cognitive interviews. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 7, 35.
45.Vuillemin, A, Oppert, J, Guillemin, Fet al. (2000) Self-administered questionnaire compared with interview to assess past-year physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, 1119–1124.
46.Bassett, DR (2000) Validity and reliability issues in objective monitoring of physical activity. Res Q Exerc Sport 71, 2 Suppl., S30–S36.
47.Kang, M, Bassett, DR, Tudor-Locke, Cet al. (2012) Measurement effects of seasonal and monthly variability on pedometer-determined data. J Phys Act Health 9, 336–343.
48.Kang, M, Bassett, DR, Tudor-Locke, Cet al. (2009) How many days are enough? A study of 365 days of pedometer monitoring. Res Q Exerc Sport 80, 445–453.
49.Flather, MD, Farkouh, ME, Pogue, JMet al. (1997) Strengths and limitations of meta-analysis: larger studies may be more reliable. Control Clinical Trials 18, 568–579.
50.Shepard, LA (1993) Evaluating test validity. Rev Res Educ 19, 405–450.