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Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and serum total cholesterol with depressive symptoms in Korean adults: the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012)

  • Soo-Hyun Lee (a1), Eunkyung Suh (a2), Kyung-Chae Park (a1), Ji-Hee Haam (a1), KyongChol Kim (a3), Hyung Suk Koo (a4), Beom-hee Choi (a5), Bo Youn Won (a1), Ki-Hyun Park (a1), Kye-Seon Park (a1), Moon-Jong Kim (a1) and Young-Sang Kim (a1)...

Abstract

Objective

To examine the hypothesis that the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms is dependent upon total cholesterol level in a representative national sample of the South Korean population.

Design

This was a population-based cross-sectional study.

Setting

The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012).

Subjects

We included 7198 adults aged 20–88 years.

Results

The incidence of depressive symptoms in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) was 1·54-fold (95 % CI 1·20, 1·98) greater than in individuals without vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/ml). The relationship was stronger in individuals with normal-to-borderline serum total cholesterol (serum total cholesterol<240 mg/dl; OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·08) and non-significant in individuals with high serum total cholesterol (OR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·52, 1·81) after adjustment for confounding variables (age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking status, regular exercise, income level, education level, marital status, changes in body weight, perceived body shape, season of examination date and cholesterol profiles).

Conclusions

The association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms was weakened by high serum total cholesterol status. These findings suggest that both vitamin D and total cholesterol are important targets for the prevention and treatment of depression.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Email kc829@cha.ac.kr

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