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We present a new method for solving the minimization problem in ferromagnetism. Our method is based on replacing the non-local non-convex total energy of magnetization by a new local non-convex energy of divergence-free fields. Such a general method works in all dimensions. However, for the two-dimensional case, since the divergence-free fields are equivalent to the rotated gradients, this new energy can be written as an integral functional of gradients and hence the minimization problem can be solved by some recent non-convex minimization procedures in the calculus of variations. We focus on the two-dimensional case in this paper and leave the three-dimensional situation to future work. Special emphasis is placed on the analysis of the existence/non-existence depending on the applied field and the physical domain.
We prove that the triangle inequalities in general are not equivalent to lower semi-continuity of surface energy. In 1990, Ambrosio and Braides proved that the two conditions are equivalent when the number of regions, s, is three. They gave an example in the plane showing that the triangle inequalities do not imply lower semi-continuity when s ≥ 6. The cases when s = 4 and s = 5 have remained open. In this paper, we resolve these open questions and show that, in ℝm, the triangle inequalities are sufficient for lower semi-continuity if and only if s = 3.
In this article, we study the existence of travelling waves for a class of epidemic models structured in space and with respect to the age of infection. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of travelling waves for such a class of problems. As a consequence of our main result, we also derive the existence of travelling waves of a class of functional partial derivative equations.
We consider a singular Sturm—Liouville expression with the indefinite weight sgn x. There is a self-adjoint operator in some Krein space associated naturally with this expression. We characterize the local definitizability of this operator in a neighbourhood of ∞. Moreover, in this situation, the point ∞ is a regular critical point. We construct an operator A = (sgn x)(−d2/dx2 + q) with non-real spectrum accumulating to a real point. The results obtained are applied to several classes of Sturm—Liouville operators.
We construct a duality theory for (a, k)-regularized resolvents, extending some of the known theorems for dual semigroups. We present several classes of spaces, which in the semigroup case correspond to the Favard class and the sun-dual space. By duality arguments spectral inclusion theorems for regularized resolvents are also obtained.
This paper concerns the homogenization problem for fully nonlinear first-order equations of Hamilton—Jacobi type with a finite number of scales. Under some coercivity and periodicity assumptions we provide an estimate of the rate of convergence. Finally, some examples arising from optimal control and deterministic differential games are discussed.
We give an integral representation formula for logarithmic Riesz potentials. This plays an essential role in proving the sharpness of the embeddings of Bessel-potential spaces, which have logarithmic exponents both in the smoothness and in the underlying Lorentz—Zygmund spaces. These results are natural extensions of those obtained by Edmunds, Gurka, Opic and Trebels.
Let a, c ≥ 0 and let B be a compact set of scalars. We show that if X is a Banach space such that the canonical projection π from X*** onto X* satisfies the inequality
and 1 ≤ λ < max |B| + c, then every λ-commuting bounded compact approximation of the identity of X is shrinking. This generalizes a theorem by Godefroy and Saphar from 1988. As an application, we show that under the conditions described above both X and X* have the metric compact approximation property (MCAP). Relying on the Willis construction, we show that the commuting MCAP does not imply the approximation property.
Let X be a finite spectrum. We prove that R(X(p)), the endomorphism ring of the p-localization of X, is a semi-perfect ring. This implies, among other things, a strong form of unique factorization for finite p-local spectra. The main step in the proof is that the Jacobson radical of R(X(p)) is idempotent-lifting, which is proved by a combination of geometric properties of finite spectra and algebraic properties of the p-localization.
In this paper we obtain the existence of a radial solution for some elliptic non-local problem with constraints. The problem arises from some mean field equation which models, among other things, a system of self-gravitating particles when one looks for its stationary solutions. We include the cases of Maxwell—Boltzmann, Fermi—Dirac and polytropic statistics.
We investigate real convex-transitive Banach spaces X, which admit a one-dimensional bicontractive projection P on X. Various mild conditions regarding the weak topology and the geometry of the norm are provided, which guarantee that such an X is in fact isometrically a Hilbert space. For example, if uSX is a big point such that there is a bicontractive linear projection P : X → [u] and X* is weak*-locally uniformly rotund, then X is a Hilbert space. The results obtained here are motivated by the well-known Banach—Mazur rotation problem, as well as a question posed by B. Randrianantoanina in 2002 about convex-transitive spaces.