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Excavations at Politiko Kokkinorotsos. A Chalcolithic Hunting Station in Cyprus

  • Jennifer M. Webb (a1), David Frankel (a1), Paul Croft (a2) and Carole McCartney (a3)

Abstract

Recent excavations at a small Chalcolithic site in central Cyprus show that it was occupied about 2880–2670 cal BC. Fallow deer form the major component of the substantial faunal sample: both these and other animals were hunted. The chipped stone, too, fits with a model of intensive meat exploitation. The lack of formal architecture supports the general model of a seasonally or intermittently used hunters' village. Plant remains and a limited array of ground stone tools, however, indicate that domesticated plants were processed and consumed, although probably not harvested at the site, while large quantities of pottery also show a wider range of activities. These data and observations can be explained by several models, which emphasise either broad processes and historical developments or more local patterns of varied site-types and activities in different parts of the island or in different ecological zones, providing an important insight into the diversity and complexity of cultural systems in the early 3rd millennium BC.

De récentes excavations sur un petit site chalcolithique dans le centre de Chypre montrent qu'il était occupé vers 2880–2670 av. J.-C. en années calibrées. Les daims constituent le principal composant d'un substantiel échantillon de faune: ceux-ci étaient chassés tout comme les autres animaux. La pierre à éclat s'inscrit bien aussit dans ce modèle d'exploitation intensive de la viande. L'absence d'architecture solide va dans le sens d'un modèle général de village de chasseurs utilisé de façon saisonnière ou intermittente. Des restes de plantes et une gamme limitée d'outils en pierre polie indiquent, cependant, que des plantes domestiquées étaient transformées et consommées, bien que probablement pas récoltées, sur le site, tandis que de grandes quantités de poteries attestent également d'une gamme plus étendue d'activités. Ces données et ces observations peuvent s'expliquer par plusieurs modèles, qui mettent l'accent soit sur des procédés étendus et des développements historiques, soit sur des schémas plus locaux de différents types de sites et d'activités dans différentes parties de l'île ou dans diverses zones écologiques, ce qui jette une importante lumière sur la diversité et la complexité des systèmes culturels au début du 3ème millénaire av. J.-C.

Excavaciones recientes en un pequeño yacimiento en Chipre central muestran que este fue ocupado alrededor de 2880–2670 cal a.C. El gamo es el componente más importante de la considerable muestra de fauna: se cazaba tanto éste como otros animales. La piedra tallada también encaja en un modelo de explotación intensiva de carne. La falta de arquitectura formal apoya el modelo general de un poblado de cazadores habitado estacional o intermitentemente. Los restos de vegetación y una limitada variedad de instrumentos líticos indican, sin embargo, que se procesaban y consumían plantas domesticadas, que probablemente no eran cultivadas en el yacimiento, mientras que las grandes cantidades de cerámica testifican también una gama de actividades más amplia. Estos datos y observaciones pueden ser explicados siguiendo varios modelos, que hacen hincapié bien en procesos amplios y desarrollos históricos, o en modelos más locales de distintos yacimientos-tipo y actividades en distintas partes de la isla o en distintas zonas ecológicas, y que aportan de modo importante a la comprensión de la diversidad y complejidad de los sistemas culturales a principios del tercer milenio a.C.

Neuere Ausgrabungen an einer kleinen chalkolithischen Fundstelle in Zentralzypern dokumentieren eine Besiedlung zwischen 2880–2670 cal BC. Der Hauptteil des Jagdwildes bildet das Damwild, obwohl auch andere Tiere gejagt wurden, wobei auch die Steingeräteindustrie auf eine intensive Fleischausbeutung hindeutet. Zusammen mit dem Fehlen jeglicher Architekturreste deutet alles auf das allgemein anerkannte Modell eines unregelmäßig aufgesuchten und saisonal benutzten Jägerstation hin. Jedoch legen die erhaltenen Pflanzenreste und ein zwar begrenztes Repertoire an Felssteingeräten nahe, dass domestizierte, wahrscheinlich lokal angebaute und geerntete Pflanzenarten verarbeitet und konsumiert wurden. Auch die große Zahl an Keramik passt nicht recht in dieses Bild, da sie ebenfalls auf eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hindeutet. Diese Daten und Beobachtungen lassen sich verschiedenartig erklären: weiträumige Prozesse und historische Entwicklungen oder lokale Modelle verschiedener Fundstellentypen und Aktivitäten in den unterschiedlichen Regionen oder ökologischen Zonen der Insel, die wiederum einen wichtigen Einblick in die Vielfalt und Komplexität kultureller Systeme im frühen 3. Jahrtausend BC geben.

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