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Intracellular trafficking of micronutrients: from gene regulation to nutrient requirements

  • John E. Hesketh (a1) and Stéphane Villette

Abstract

Résumé

La distribution intracellulaire des micronutriments ainsi que leur absorption sont importantes pour les fonctions cellulaires. Dans certains cas la distribution des micronutriments ou des protéines associées est déterminée par des mécanismes liés à l'expression des gènes. La région 3' non traduite (3'UTR) de l'ARNm de la métallothioneine-1 détermine la localisation de ce message et, par conséquent, la localisation intracellulaire de la protéine qu'il code. En utilisant des cellules transfectées nous avons montré que la métallothioneine-1 est transportée vers le noyau ou elle exerce un rôle dans la protection contre le stress oxydant et les dommages causés à l'ADN. Quand l'apport nutritionnel en Se est limité, l'expression des sélénoproteines est altérée. Toutefois celle-ci n'est pas affectée de fac¸on identique pour toutes les sélénoproteines; le Se disponible étant utilisé de fac¸on prioritaire pour la synthèse de certaines d'entre elles. Cet ordre de priorité met en jeu des différences dans la traduction et la stabilité de leur ARNm qui sont sous le controle de séquences dans la région 3' non traduite. Potentiellement, des variations génétiques affectant ces mécanismes régulateurs peuvent moduler les besoins en nutriments. Des polymorphismes génétiques ont été décrits dans le 3'UTR des ARNm de deux sélénoproteines; l'un d'entre eux affectant la synthèse de la sélénoproteine correspondante. Ces exemples illustrent comment des approches moléculaires peuvent contribuer à accroître notre compréhension du métabolisme et des besoins en nutriments à différents niveaux. Premièrement, elles permettent d'étudier les effets régulateurs des gènes et de leurs produits. Ensuite, la compréhension de ces effets peut fournir un modèle pour étudier le métabolisme des nutriments au niveau cellulaire. Ainsi, lorsque des effets essentiels sont identifiés, la connaissance du génome humain et les bases de données sur les polymorphismes génétiques constituent des outils complémentaires pour définir l'étendue de la variation génétique des gènes revêtant une importance nutritionnelle. Enfin, la fonctionnalité de ces variations peut être définie et des sous-groupes de la population, possédant des besoins nutritionnels différents, peuvent etre identifiés.

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Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Professor John Hesketh, fax +44 191 222 8684, email J.E.Hesketh@ncl.ac.uk

References

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