Alexander, G, Lynch, JJ & Mottershead, BE (1979) Use of shelter and selection of lambing sites by shorn and unshorn ewes in paddocks with closely or widely spaced shelters. Applied Animal Ethology 5, 51–69.
Anderson, RC, Rasmussen, MA & Allison, MJ (1993) Metabolism of the plant toxins nitropropionic acid and nitropropanol by ruminal microorganisms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59, 3056–3061.
Angerbjorn, A & Pehrson, A (1987) Factors influencing winter food choice by mountain hares (Lepus timidusL.) on Swedish coastal islands. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65, 2163–2167.
Arnold, GW & Maller, RA (1985) An analysis of factors influencing spatial distribution in flocks of grazing sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 14, 173–189.
Austin, PJ, Suchar, LA, Robbins, CT & Hagerman, AE (1989) Tannin-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15, 1335–1347.
Bailey, DW, Gross, JE, Laca, EA, Rittenhouse, LR, Coughenour, MB, Swift, DM & Sims, PL (1996) Mechanisms that result in large herbivore grazing distribution patterns. Journal of Range Management 49, 386–400.
Bazely, DR (1990) Rules and cues used by sheep foraging in monocultures. In Behavioural Mechanisms of Food Selection, pp. 343–368 [Hughes, RN, editor]. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
Belovsky, GE (1978) Diet optimization in a generalist herbivore: the moose. Theoretical Population Biology 14, 105–134.
Belovsky, GE (1981) Food plant selection by a generalist herbivore: the moose. Ecology 62, 1020–1030.
Belovsky, GE (1984) Herbivore optimal foraging: a comparative test of three models. American Naturalist 124, 97–115.
Blaxter, KL (1977) Environmental factors and their influence on the nutrition of farm livestock. In Nutrition and the Climatic Environment, pp. 1–16 [Haresign, W, Swan, H and Lewis, D, editors]. London: Butterworths.
Buckland, ST, Trenkel, VM, Elston, DA, Partridge, LW & Gordon, IJ (1998) A decision support system for deer managers in Scotland. In Population Ecology, Management and Welfare of Deer pp. 82–87 [Goldspink, CR, King, S and Putman, RJ, editors]. Manchester: Manchester Metropolitan University.
Cooper, J (1997) The behavioural control of helminth infection in sheep. PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Cooper, SDB, Kyriazakis, I & Nolan, JV (1995) Diet selection in sheep: the role of the rumen environment in the selection of a diet from two feeds that differ in their energy density. British Journal of Nutrition 74, 39–54.
Cooper, SM, Owen-Smith, N & Bryant, JP (1988) Foliage acceptability to browsing ruminants in relation to seasonal changes in leaf chemistry of woody plants in a South African savanna. Oecologia 75, 336–342.
Cowlishaw, G (1997) Trade-offs between foraging and predation risk determine habitat use in a desert baboon population. Animal Behaviour 53, 667–686.
Dickinson, JM, Smith, GR, Randel, RD & Pemberton, IJ (1988) In vitro metabolism of Formononetin and Biochanin A in bovine rumen fluid. Journal of Animal Science 66, 1969–1973.
Duncan, AJ, Frutos, P & Kyriazakis, I (1998) Conditioned food aversions to oxalic acid in the food plants of sheep and goats. In Toxic Plants and Other Natural Toxicants, pp. 169–173 [Garland, T and Barr, AC, editors]
. New York: CAB International.
Duncan, AJ, Hartley, SE & Iason, GR (1994a) Fine scale discrimination of forage quality by sheep offered a soya-bean meal or barley supplement while grazing a nitrogen-fertilized heather (Calluna vulgaris) mosaic. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 123, 363–370.
Duncan, AJ, Hartley, SE & Iason, GR (1994b) The effect of monoterpene concentrations in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) on the browsing behaviour of red deer (Cervus elaphus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 72, 1715–1720.
du, Toit JT, Provenza, FD & Nastis, A (1991) Conditioned taste aversions: how sick must a ruminant get before it learns about toxicity in foods. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 30, 35–46.
Edwards, GR, Newman, JA, Parsons, AJ & Krebs, JR (1997) Use of cues by grazing animals to locate food patches: an example with sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 51, 59–68.
Elliot, S & Loudon, A (1987) Effects of monoterpene odors on food selection by red deer calves. Journal of Chemical Ecology 13, 1343–1349.
Forbes, JM & Kyriazakis, I (1995) Food preferences in farm animals: why don't they always choose wisely? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 54, 429–440.
Fraser, MD & Gordon, IJ (1997) The diet of goats, red deer and South American camelids feeding on three contrasting Scottish upland vegetation communities. Journal of Applied Ecology 34, 668–686.
Gordon, IJ (1989) Vegetation community selection by ungulates on the Isle of Rhum. III. Determinants of vegetation community selection. Journal of Applied Ecology 26, 65–79.
Hagerman, AE & Robbins, CT (1993) Specificity of tannin-binding salivary proteins relative to diet selection by mammals. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71, 628–633.
Hanley, TA (1997) A nutritional view of understanding and complexity in the problem of diet selection by deer (Cervidae). Oikos 79, 209–218.
Hjalten, J & Palo, T (1992) Selection of deciduous trees by free ranging voles and hares in relation to plant chemistry. Oikos 63, 477–484.
Hunter, RF (1962) Hill sheep and their pasture: A study of sheep-grazing in south-east Scotland. Journal of Ecology 50, 651–680.
Hutchings, MR, Kyriazakis, I, Anderson, DH, Gordon, IJ & Coop, RL (1999) Trade-offs between nutrient intake and faecal avoidance in herbivore foraging decisions: the effect of parasite status. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 310–323.
Illius, AW & Gordon, IJ (1992) Modelling the nutritional ecology of ungulate herbivores: evolution of body size and competitive interactions. Oecologia 89, 428–434.
Jones, RJ (1981) Does ruminal metabolism of mimosine explain the absence of Leucaena toxicity in Hawaii. Australian Veterinary Journal 57, 55–56.
Kronberg, SL & Malechek, JC (1997) Relationships between nutrition and foraging behavior of free-ranging sheep and goats. Journal of Animal Science 75, 1756–1763.
Kronberg, SL & Walker, JW (1993) Ruminal metabolism of leafy spurge in sheep and goats – A potential explanation for differential foraging on spurge by sheep, goats, and cattle. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19, 2007–2017.
Kyriazakis, I & Emmans, GC (1991) Diet selection in pigs: dietary choices made by growing pigs following a period of underfeeding with protein. Animal Production 52, 337–346.
Kyriazakis, I & Oldham, JD (1993) Diet selection in sheep: the ability of growing lambs to select a diet that meets their crude protein (nitrogen × 6.25) requirements. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 617–629.
Kyriazakis, I, Papachristou, TG, Duncan, AJ & Gordon, IJ (1997) Mild conditioned food aversions developed by sheep towards flavours associated with plant secondary compounds. Journal of Chemical Ecology 23, 727–746.
Langlands, JP (1969) Studies on the nutritive value of the diet selected by grazing sheep. IV. Variation in the diet selected by sheep differing in age, breed, sex, strain and previous history. Animal Production 11, 369–378.
Lawrence, AB & Wood-Gush, DGM (1988) Influence of social behaviour on utilization of supplemental feedblocks by Scottish hill sheep. Animal Production 46, 203–212.
Lima, SL & Dill, DM (1990) Behavioural decisions made under the risk of predation: a review and prospectus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68, 619–640.
Main, MB, Weckerly, FW & Bleich, VC (1996) Sexual segregation in ungulates: New directions for research. Journal of Mammalogy 77, 449–461.
Mattson, WJ (1980) Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11, 119–161.
Mehansho, H, Butler, LG & Carlson, DM (1987) Dietary tannins and salivary proteins: interactions, induction and defense mechanisms. Annual Review of Nutrition 7, 423–440.
Milne, JA (1991) Diet selection by grazing animals. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 50, 77–85.
Murden, SB & Risenhoover, KL (1993) Effects of habitat enrichment on patterns of diet selection. Ecological Applications 3, 497–505.
Murray, MG (1991) Maximising energy retention in grazing ruminants. Journal of Animal Ecology 60, 1029–1045.
Owen-Smith, N (1994) Foraging responses of kudus to seasonal changes in food resources: Elasticity in constraints. Ecology 75, 1050–1062.
Penning, PD, Parsons, AJ, Newman, JA, Orr, RJ & Harvey, A (1993) The effects of group size on grazing time in sheep. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37, 101–109.
Provenza, FD (1995) Postingestive feedback as an elementary determinant of food preference and intake in ruminants. Journal of Range Management 48, 2–17.
Provenza, FD, Pfister, JA & Cheney, CD (1992) Mechanisms of learning in diet selection with reference to phytotoxicosis in herbivores. Journal of Range Management 45, 36–45.
Ralphs, MH (1992) Conditioned food aversion: training livestock to avoid eating poisonous plants. Journal of Range Management 45, 46–51.
Ralphs, MH, Provenza, FD, Wiedmeier, WD & Bunderson, FB (1995) Effects of energy source and food flavor on conditioned preferences in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 73, 1651–1657.
Rangen, SA, Hawley, AWL & Hudson, RJ (1994) Relationship of snowshoe hare feeding preferences to nutrient and tannin content of four conifers. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24, 240–245.
Rozin, P (1976) The selection of foods by rats, humans and other animals. In Advances in the Study of Behaviour, Vol. 6, pp. 21–76 [Rosenblatt, JS, Hinde, RA, Shaw, E and Beer, C, editors]. New York: Academic Press.
Senft, RL, Coughenour, MB, Bailey, DW, Rittenhouse, LR, Sala, OE & Swift, DM (1987) Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies. Bioscience 37, 789–799.
Senft, RL, Rittenhouse, LR & Woodmansee, RG (1985) Factors influencing patterns of cattle grazing behavior on shortgrass steppe. Journal of Range Management 38, 82–87.
Stafford, Smith DM, Noble, IR & Jones, GK (1985) A heat balance model for sheep and its use to predict shade-seeking behaviour in hot conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology 22, 753–774.
Staines, BW (1976) The use of natural shelter by red deer in relation to weather in north-east Scotland. Journal of Zoology 180, 1–8.
Stuth, JW (1991) Foraging behavior. In Grazing Management: An Ecological Perspective, pp. 65–83 [Heidschmidt, RK and Stuth, JW, editors]. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
Thouless, CR & Guinness, FE (1986) Conflict between red deer hinds: the winner always wins. Animal Behaviour 34, 1166–1171.
Tixier, H, Duncan, P, Scehovic, J, Yani, A, Gleizes, M & Lila, M (1997) Food selection by European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): effects of plant chemistry, and consequences for the nutritional value of their diets. Journal of Zoology 242, 229–245.
Tolkamp, BJ, Dewhurst, RJ, Friggens, NC, Kyriazakis, I, Veerkamp, RF & Oldham, JD (1998) Diet choice by dairy cows. 1. Selection of feed protein content during the first half of lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 81, 2657–2669.
Villalba, JJ & Provenza, FD (1996) Preference for flavored wheat-straw by lambs conditioned with intraruminal administrations of sodium propionate. Journal of Animal Science 74, 2362–2368.
Villalba, JJ & Provenza, FD (1997) Preference for flavoured foods by lambs conditioned with intraruminal administration of nitrogen. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 545–561.
Wachenheim, DE, Blythe, LL & Craig, AM (1992) Characterization of rumen bacterial pyrrolizidine alkaloid biotransformation in ruminants of various species. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 34, 513–517.
Wallis, de Vries MF & Schippers, P (1994) Foraging in a landscape mosaic – selection for energy and minerals in free-ranging cattle. Oecologia 100, 107–117.
Watkins, JBI & Klaassen, CD (1986) Xenobiotic biotransformation in livestock: comparison to other species commonly used in toxicity testing. Journal of Animal Science 63, 933–942.
Wilmshurst, JF, Fryxell, JM & Hudson, RJ (1995) Forage quality and patch choice by wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Behavioral Ecology 6, 209–217.
Zahorik, DM & Houpt, KA (1981) Species differences in feeding strategies, food hazards and the ability to learn food aversions. In Foraging Behaviour, pp. 289–310 [Kamil, AC and Sargent, TD, editors]. New York: Garland.