Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Effect of vitamin d2 supplementation on serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin d3 levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 January 2018

C. Toyn
Affiliation:
Nutritional Sciences Department, School of Biosciences and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford. GU2 7XH, UK
A.L. Darling
Affiliation:
Nutritional Sciences Department, School of Biosciences and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford. GU2 7XH, UK
K. Hart
Affiliation:
Nutritional Sciences Department, School of Biosciences and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford. GU2 7XH, UK
L. Tripkovic
Affiliation:
Nutritional Sciences Department, School of Biosciences and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford. GU2 7XH, UK
C.P. Smith
Affiliation:
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton. BN2 4GJ. Sussex, UK
J.C. Mathers
Affiliation:
Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle on Tyne, NE4 5PL, UK.
S.A. Lanham-New
Affiliation:
Nutritional Sciences Department, School of Biosciences and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford. GU2 7XH, UK
R.M. Elliott
Affiliation:
Nutritional Sciences Department, School of Biosciences and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford. GU2 7XH, UK
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Image of the first page of this article
Type
Abstract
Copyright
Copyright © The Authors 2018 

Food manufacturers will often use vitamin D2 to fortify foods with vitamin D, as unlike vitamin D3, D2 can be consumed by vegetarians and vegans( 1 ). However, recent research has indicated that vitamin D2 has a lesser effect on raising total vitamin D (25(OH)D) status compared to vitamin D3 and could result in a decrease in 25(OH)D3 concentrations( Reference Lehmann 2 Reference Itkonen 4 ). Furthermore, only vitamin D3 and not vitamin D2 has been found to decrease all-cause and cancer mortality( Reference Bjelakovic 5 ).

The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have supplemented with vitamin D2 via a tablet/capsule or via a food fortification vehicle, and to compare concentrations of measured serum 25(OH)D3 following supplementation.

A comprehensive electronic search of the EMBASE and PUBMED databases was performed, covering January 1980 to February 2017. Search terms used were as follows: “vitamin D OR 25-hydroxy* OR vitamin D2 OR vitamin D3 OR cholecalciferol OR ergocalciferol OR 25OHD” AND “supplementation” AND “randomized controlled trial OR randomized controlled trial OR RCT”. Studies were also selected via online hand-searches and by examining study bibliographies. Studies were eligible if they had supplemented vitamin D2 in human adults, had a clear control/placebo comparison group and had measured serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 in both groups. Studies were then systematically reviewed for inclusion into the final meta-analysis. Out of 11 studies for systematic review, 8 study authors needed to be contacted to request missing data. Subsequently, data from 6 studies were available to be included for meta-analysis. The majority of 25(OH)D3 concentrations were measured in nmol/L, although one study required conversion from ng/mL (1 ng/mL = 2.5 nmol/L).

A total of 803 participants were included in the 11 studies selected for systematic review. Ages ranged from 18-84 years and in the 9 studies that declared the gender of subjects, the ratio of males to females was approximately 1:3. The studies were undertaken in the UK, Ireland, USA, New Zealand, Germany and Finland and dated from 1999-2016, although all but 1 study were dated within the last 13 years. Of the 5 studies that declared ethnicity of participants, a range of Caucasian (n 343), South Asian (n 63), African-American (n 31), Hispanic (n 5), Asian (n 8) and Native American adults (n 1) were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated that vitamin D2 supplementation led to a mean difference (MD) in serum 25(OH)D3 as follows: MD (fixed) = −11.97 (95 % CI -13.93 to -10.1; P < 0.00001, p(heterogeneity) = 0.36 I 2=9 %. Therefore, there was an 11.97 nmol/L drop in 25(OH)D3 when subjects were supplemented with vitamin D2 as opposed to a control group.

This meta-analysis indicates that overall, supplementation of vitamin D2 decreased serum 25(OH)D3 concentration by an average of 12 nmol/L, which was highly significant (P < 0.00001). In addition, the findings suggest that those with higher baseline 25(OH)D concentrations may be more susceptible to the lowering effect of vitamin D2 on 25(OH)D3. Further research is urgently required to understand fully the molecular mechanisms underlying this drop in 25(OH)D3 levels, as well as the long-term implications of vitamin D2 supplementation on health outcomes and mortality.

References

1) Arya. (2012) Aust Fam Physician. 41(5):7393.Google Scholar
2) Lehmann, et al. (2013) The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 98(11):43394345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3) Logan, et al. (2013) Br J Nutr. 109(6):10821088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4) Itkonen, et al. (2016) Br J Nutr. 115(7):12321239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5) Bjelakovic, et al. (2011) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7):CD007470.Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 60
Total number of PDF views: 261 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 26th January 2018 - 18th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Access
Hostname: page-component-77fc7d77f9-n279q Total loading time: 0.346 Render date: 2021-01-18T12:17:19.575Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "1", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags last update: Mon Jan 18 2021 11:55:24 GMT+0000 (Coordinated Universal Time) Feature Flags: { "metrics": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "peerReview": true, "crossMark": true, "comments": true, "relatedCommentaries": true, "subject": true, "clr": true, "languageSwitch": true, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Effect of vitamin d2 supplementation on serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin d3 levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Effect of vitamin d2 supplementation on serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin d3 levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Effect of vitamin d2 supplementation on serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin d3 levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *