Proceedings of the Design Society publishes proceedings from the DESIGN Conference and the International Conference in Engineering Design (ICED). The DESIGN Conference is an event endorsed by the Design Society. The conference series started in 1981 and has become a biennial international event connecting researchers across various design disciplines and presenting current state-of-the-art research and ideas. The conference includes plenary and topic-oriented sessions, workshops, the DESIGN Debate and social events. ICED is the flagship event hosted by the Design Society. Started in 1981 it is a biennial event bringing together design engineers, scientists, and practitioners presenting new design research, methods and tools. The conference includes podium and discussion sessions, posters, workshops, social events and the biennial general meeting of the Design Society.