X-ray powder diffraction investigation of the new high temperature polymorphs beta- and gamma-CaTeO3 and gamma- and delta-CaTe2O5 and picnometric measurements of the room temperature phases of the two compounds have been carried out. The study led to the elucidation of their unit cell structures and assignment of entirely new lattice types and parameters to the room temperature phases of CaTeO3 and CaTe2O5 in contrast and supersession to the existing structural information. The results are as follows: CaTeO3 has only one stable phase at room temperature and temperatures up to 882 °C, i.e., α- and has a triclinic unit cell with a=4.132±0.003 Å, b=6.120±0.006 Å, c=12.836±0.013 Å, α=121.80°, β=99.72°, γ=97.26°. The first high temperature phase stable between 882 and 894 °C, i.e., β-CaTeO3, has a monoclinic lattice: a=20.577±0.007 Å, b=21.857±0.009 Å, c=4.111±0.002 Å, β=96.15°, while the next phase stable above 894 °C, i.e., γ-CaTeO3, has a hexagonal unit cell with parameters: a=14.015±0.0001 Å, c=9.783±0.001 Å, c/a=0.698. CaTe2O5 has one stable phase at temperatures up to 802 °C, i.e., α-CaTe2O5 with a monoclinic lattice and parameters: a=9.069±0.002 Å, b=25.175±0.007 Å, c=3.366±0.001 Å, β=98.29 °. The first high temperature phase stable in the range 802–845°, i.e., β-CaTe2O5, is monoclinic with unit cell parameters: a=4.146±0.001 Å, b=5.334±0.002 Å, c=6.105±0.002 Å, β=98.362 °; the next higher temperature phase stable over 845–857 °C, i.e., γ-CaTe2O5, has an orthorhombic unit cell with: a=8.638±0.001 Å, b=9.291±0.001 Å, c=7.862±0.001 Å and the highest temperature solid phase stable above 857 °C, i.e., δ-CaTe2O5 has a tetragonal unit cell with a=5.764±0.000 Å, c=32.074±0.020 Å, c/a=5.5637.