Residual stresses impact on a wide variety of industrial sectors including the automotive, power generation, industrial plant, construction, aerospace, railway and transport industries, and a range of materials manufacturers and processing companies. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique is one of the most popular methods for measuring residual stress (Kandil et al., 2001) used routinely in quality control and materials characterization for validating models and design. The VAMAS TWA20 Project 3 activity on the “Measurement of Residual Stresses by X-ray Diffraction” was initiated by NPL in 2005 to examine various aspects of the XRD test procedure in support of work aimed at developing an international standard in this area. The purpose of this project was to examine and reduce some of the sources of scatter and uncertainty in the measurement of residual stress by X-ray diffraction on metallic materials, through an international intercomparison and validation exercise. One of the major issues the intercomparison highlighted was the problem associated with measuring residual stresses in austenitic stainless steel. The following paper describes this intercomparison, reviews the results of the exercise and details additional work looking at developing best practice for measuring residual stresses in austenitic stainless steel, for which X-ray measurements are somewhat unreliable and problematic.