The stagnation of sorghum grain yields worldwide and utilization of inbred lines by public and private organizations (multinational seed companies) warrant the understanding of genetic diversity present in inbred lines. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare morphological and molecular diversity analysis and (2) to identify heterotic pools from the genotypes evaluated. Sixty-five rainy-season elite lines were evaluated during the 2006 and 2007 rainy seasons, and 15 post-rainy-season genotypes in the 2003 and 2004 post-rainy seasons for their distinctiveness, uniformity and stability at the Directorate of Sorghum Research, Hyderabad, India. Ninety-three genotypes (ten rainy-season B lines, 13 rainy-season R lines, 36 rainy-season varieties, seven rainy-season hybrids, ten forage varieties and 17 post-rainy-season genotypes) were evaluated using 48 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are uniformly distributed over the sorghum genome. From the 93 genotypes analysed, 310 alleles were observed, with an average of 6.5 alleles per locus. A high level of polymorphism (mean 97%) was detected. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.463; P = 0.001) between genetic similarities and morphological similarities was obtained. Unlike previous reports, both methods clearly distinguished B lines, R lines, rainy-season varieties, post-rainy-season varieties and forage varieties. Forage and post-rainy-season varieties present a higher diversity of 60%. This could be because the post-rainy-season varieties are developed from local landraces and forage genotypes from crosses such as Sorghum bicolor × Sudan grass. Herein, we further discuss the grouping of elite genotypes into different heterotic pools.