Anthracnose or fruit rot disease caused by Colletotrichum spp. leads to substantial economic losses in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) production worldwide. In the present study, 24 different Bhut Jolokia chilli landraces and seven Capsicum annuum cultivars have been collected from the northeastern region of India and subsequently screened under in vitro and in vivo conditions against Colletotrichum capsici and C. gloeosporiodes infections. During field evaluation, eight chilli genotypes (CC0164, CC0165, CC0191, CC0192, CC0202, CC0206, CC0209 and CC0218) were highly resistant and 12 genotypes (CC0154, CC0179, CC0181, CC0183, CC0186, CC0189, CC0193, CC0198, CC0205, CC0210, CC0213 and CC0217) were found in resistant category against C. capsici infection. During in-vitro germplasm evaluation, 11 and 12 landraces were found to be highly resistant to C. capsici and C. gloeosporioides infections, respectively. According to the findings, the majority of Bhut Jolokia chilli landraces are resistant to anthracnose. Given the difficulties farmers experience as a result of excessive use of fungicides and pesticides, germplasm screening for host resistance has already begun. The resistant lines identified in the current study offers better choices to tackle anthracnose and could be used effectively in breeding programs to develop anthracnose resistant varieties.