Skip to main content Accessibility help

Preliminary study on geographical distribution and evolutionary relationships between cultivated and wild adzuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) by AFLP analysis

  • Zong Xu-xiao (a1), Duncan Vaughan (a2), Norihiko Tomooka (a2), Akito Kaga (a2), Wang Xin-wang (a2), Guan Jian-ping (a1) and Wang Shu-min (a1)...


A set of 146 representative adzuki (Vigna angularis var. angularis and var. nipponensis) germplasm from six Asian countries with a tradition of adzuki bean production, together with an outgroup standard rice bean (Vigna umbellata), were analysed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methodology using 12 informative primer pairs. A total of 313 unambiguous polymorphic bands were created. According to the dendrogram, using cluster analysis based on AFLP banding, 143 of the accessions were distinct and revealed enough genetic diversity for identification and classification of accessions within Vigna angularis. A neighbour-joining tree was generated using the newly developed Innan's nucleotide diversity estimate from the AFLP data. From analysis, seven distinct evolutionary groups, named ‘Chinese cultivated’, ‘Japanese cultivated’, ‘Japanese complex-Korean cultivated’, ‘Chinese wild’, ‘China Taiwan wild’, ‘Nepal- Bhutan cultivated’ and ‘Himalayan wild’, were detected. Nucleotide diversity with geographical distribution of each group is discussed, regarding the evolutionary relationships between wild and cultivated adzuki beans. The preliminary results indicated that cultivated adzuki beans have been domesticated from at least four progenitors with at least three geographical origins.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author. E-mail:


Hide All
Dellaporta, SL, Wood, J and Hicks, JB (1983) A plant DNA minipreparation: version II. Plant Molecular Biology Reports 1: 1921.
Ding, ZL (1959) Legume Crops. Beijing: Graduate Education Press (in Chinese).
Dong, YC (trans.) (1982) Evolutionary Centers of Major Cultivated Plants in the World. Beijing: China Agriculture Press (in Chinese).
Felsenstein, J (1992) Phylogenies from restriction sites, a maximum likelihood approach. Evolution 46, 557574.
Hu, JP (1984) Preliminary study on adzuki bean germplasm resources. Crop Germplasm Resources 1: 2125(in Chinese).
Innan, H, Terauchi, R, Kahl, G and Tajima, F (1999) A method for estimating nucleotide diversity from AFLP data. Genetics 151: 11571164.
Jaccard, P (1908) Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Bulletin Societe Vaudoise Sciences Naturelles 44: 223270.
Jiang, YG (1984) Study on ecological types of Shandong local adzuki germplasm. Crop Germplasm Resources 4: 912 (in Chinese).
Gene, Key (1994) AFLP Protocol for Public Release, Version 2.1.
Mimura, M, Yasuda, K and Yamaguchi, H (2000) RAPD variation in wild, weedy and cultivated azuki beans in Asia. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 47: 603610.
Rohlf, JF (2000) NTSYSpc: Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System, Version 2.1. Users Guide. Setauket, NY: Exeter Software.
Tomooka, N, Egawa, Y and Kaga, A (2000) Biosystematics and genetic resources of the genus Vigna subgenus Ceratotropis. In: 7th MAFF International Workshop on Genetic Resources. Wild Legumes, pp. 3762.
Tomooka, N, Vaughan, DA, Moss, H and Maxted, N (2003) The Asian Vigna. The Genus Vigna Subgenus Ceratotropis Genetic Resources. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press.
Wang, SM, Hu, YK and Hu, JP (2002) Study on genetic diversity of adzuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi] germplasm based on RAPD markers. Journal of Plant Genetic Resources 3(1): 1419 (in Chinese).
Xu, RQ, Tomooka, N and Vaughan, DA (2000) AFLP markers for characterizing the azuki bean complex. Crop Science 40: 808815.
Yee, E, Kidwell, KK, Sills, GR and Lumpkin, TA (1999) Diversity among selected Vigna angularis (azuki) accessions on the basis of RAPD and AFLP markers. Crop Science 39: 268275.
Yoon, MS, Doi, K, Kaga, A, Tomooka, N and Vaughan, DA (2000) Analysis of the genetic diversity in the Vigna minima complex and related species in East Asia. Journal of Plant Resources 113: 375386.
Zheng, ZJ, Wang, SM and Zong, XX (1997) Food Legumes in China. Beijing: China Agriculture Press (in Chinese).



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed