Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Genetic structure of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica): implications for the establishment of ex situ conservation protocols in light of the invasion of the emerald ash borer

  • Constance E. Hausman (a1) (a2), Michelle M. Bertke (a2), John F. Jaeger (a3) and Oscar J. Rocha (a2)

Abstract

The USA is experiencing a prolific invasion of the wood-boring emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis. Native to Asia, this beetle completes its life cycle on ash trees and results in nearly complete mortality of all infested trees. In the present study, we examined the levels of genetic diversity and differentiation among eight populations of Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash) using five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic information was used to design guidelines for the establishment of a seed collection sampling strategy to conserve the genetic diversity of ash trees. We found high levels of genetic diversity, as indicated by the allelic richness, both across the populations (16.4 ± 5.18 alleles per locus) and within them (8.03 ± 1.21 alleles per locus). The expected and observed heterozygosity was also high (0.805 ± 0.38 and 0.908 ± 0.04, respectively), and there was moderate genetic differentiation among the populations (F ST= 0.083) with members of these eight populations grouped into three distinct clusters. We examined the relationship between the number of individuals sampled and the number of alleles captured in a random sample taken from a population of 10,000 individuals. Only sample sizes of 100 individuals captured most of the alleles (average = 78.74 alleles), but only seven of 50 samples effectively captured all the 82 alleles. Smaller samples did not capture all alleles. A probabilistic model was used to determine an optimal sampling strategy, and it was concluded that a collection of 200 seeds from each of five mother trees would have the highest likelihood of capturing all alleles in a population.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author. E-mail: orocha@kent.edu

References

Hide All
Bashalkhanov, S, Pandey, M and Rajora, OP (2009) A simple method for estimating genetic diversity in large populations from finite sample sizes. BMC Genetics 10: 84.
Beckman Coulter Inc. (2009) GenomeLab™: Genetic Analysis System. Brea, CA: Beckman Coulter, Inc.
Bonner FT (1974) Fraxinus L. ash. In: Schopmeyer CS (techn. coord.) Weeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC, USDA Forest Service, pp. 411–419.
Brown, ADH and Briggs, JD (1991) Sampling strategies for genetic variation in ex situ collections of endangered plant species. In: Falk, DA and Holsinger, KE (eds) Genetic Conservation of Rare Plants. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 99119.
Brown, AHD and Hardner, CM (2000) Sampling the gene pools of forest trees for ex situ conservation. In: Young, A, Boyle, T and Boshier, T (eds) Forest Conservation Genetics: Principles and Practice. Melbourne: CSIRO, pp. 185196.
Carter, KK (1996) Provenance tests as indicators of growth responses to climate change in 10 north temperate tree species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 10891095.
Center for Plant Conservation (1991) Genetic sampling guidelines for conservation collections of endangered plants. In: Faulk, DA and Holsinger, KE (eds) Genetics and Conservation of Rare Plants. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 225238.
Cullings, KW (1992) Design and testing of a plant-specific PCR primer for ecological and evolutionary studies. Molecular Ecology 1: 233240.
Degen, B, Streiff, R and Ziegenhagen, B (1999) Comparative study of genetic variation and differentiation of two pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) stands using microsatellite and allozyme loci. Heredity 83: 597603.
Doyle, JJ and Doyle, JL (1987) A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin 19: 1115.
Earl, D and von Holdt, B (2011) STRUCTURE HARVESTER: a website and program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno method. Conservation Genetics Resources 4: 359361.
Evanno, G, Regnaut, S and Goudet, J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCURE: a simulation study. Molecular Ecology 14: 26112620.
Feres, JMM, Guidugli, MC, Mestriner, MA, Sebbenn, AM, Ciampi, AY and Alzate-Marin, AL (2009) Microsatellite diversity and effective population size in a germplasm bank of Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Leguminosae), an endangered tropical tree: recommendations for conservation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56: 797807.
Fisher, RA (1925) Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.
Geyer, WA, Lynch, KD, Row, J, Schaeffer, P and Bagley, W (2005) Performance of green ash seed sources at four locations in the Great Plains region. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 22: 5458.
Goodall-Copestake, WP, Hollingsworth, ML, Hollingsworth, PM, Jenkins, GI and Collin, E (2005) Molecular markers and ex situ conservation of the European elms (Ulmus spp.). Biological Conservation 122: 537546.
Guarino, L., Ramanatha Rao, V. and Reid, R. 1995. Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity, Technical Guidelines. CAB International, Wallingford.
Guerrant, EO Jr, Fiedler, PL, Havens, K and Maunder, M (2004) Revised genetic sampling guidelines for conservation collections of rare and endangered plants. In: Guerrant, EO, Havens, K and Maunder, M (eds) Ex Situ Plant Conservation. Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 419441.
Haack, RA, Jendek, E, Liu, H, Marchant, KR, Tetrice, TR, Poland, TM and Ye, H (2002) The emerald ash borer: a new exotic pest in North America. Michigan Entomological Society Newsletter 47: 15.
Hawkes, JG (1980) Crop Genetic Resources Field Collection Manual. Birmingham: Department of Plant Biology, University of Birmingham.
Herms, DA, Stone, AK and Chatfield, JA (2004) Emerald ash borer: the beginning of the end of ash in North America? In: Chatfield, JA, Draper, EA, Mathers, HM, Dyke, DE, Bennett, PJ and Boggs, JF (eds) Ornamental Plants: Annual Reports and Research Reviews 2003. Special Circular 193. Wooster, OH: Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, Ohio State University Extension, pp. 6271.
Heuertz, M, Hausman, J-F, Tsvetkov, I, Frascaria-Lacostes, N and Vekemans, X (2001) Assessment of genetic structure within and among Bulgarian populations of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Molecular Ecology 10: 16151623.
Heuertz, M, Hausman, J-F, Hardy, OJ, Vendramin, GG, Frascaria-Lacostes, N and Vekemans, X (2004) Nuclear microsatellites reveal contrasting patterns of genetic structure between western and southeastern European populations of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Evolution 58: 976988.
Hu, L-J, Uchiyama, K, Shen, H-L, Saito, Y, Tsuda, Y and Ide, Y (2008) Nuclear DNA microsatellites reveal genetic variation but a lack of phylogeographical structure in an endangered species, Fraxinus mandshurica, across northeast China. Annals of Botany 102: 195205.
Hu, L-J, Uchiyama, K and Shen, H-L (2010) Multiple-scaled spatial genetic structures of Fraxinus mandshurica over a riparian-mountain landscape in Northeast China. Conservation Genetics 11: 7787.
Hubisz, MJ, Falush, D, Stevphens, M and Pritchard, JK (2009) Inferring weak population structure with the assistance of sample group information. Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 13221332.
Karnosky, DF and Steiner, KC (1981) Provenance and family variation in response of Fraxinus americana and Fraxinus pennsylvanica to ozone and sulfur dioxide. Phytopathology 71: 804807.
Khoury, C, Laliberte, B and Guarino, L (2010) Trends in ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources: a review of global crop and regional conservation strategies. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 57: 625639.
Lawrence, MJ and Marshall, DF (1997) Plant population genetics. In: Maxted, N, Ford-Lloyd, BV and Hawkes, JG (eds) Plant Genetic Conservation: The In-situ Approach. London: Chapman and Hall, pp. 99113.
Lawrence, MJ, Marshall, DF and Davies, P (1995a) Genetics of genetic conservation. I. Sample size when collecting germplasm. Euphytica 84: 8999.
Lawrence, MJ, Marshall, DF and Davies, P (1995b) Genetics of genetic conservation. II. Sample size when collecting seed of cross pollinating species and the information that can be obtained from the evaluation of material held in gene banks. Euphytica 84: 101107.
Lefort, F, Brachet, S, Frascaria-Lacoste, N, Edwards, KJ and Douglas, GC (1999) Identification and characterization of microsatellite loci in ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and their conservation in the olive family (Oleaceae). Molecular Ecology 8: 10751092.
Marshall, DR and Brown, AHD (1975) Optimum sampling strategies in genetic conservation. In: Frankel, OH and Hawkes, JG (eds) Crop Genetic Resources Today and Tomorrow. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 5380.
Miller, MP (1997) Tools for population genetic analyses (TFPGA) 1.3: A Windows program for the analysis of allozyme and molecular population genetic data. Computer software distributed by author. http://www.marksgeneticsoftware.net/_vti_bin/shtml.exe/tfpga.htm .
National Research Council (1991) Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council (1993) Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Nei, M (1973) Analysis of genetic diversity in subdivided populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) 70: 33213323.
Nei, M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89: 583590.
Pritchard, JK, Stephens, M and Donnelly, P (2000) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155: 945995.
Rivera-Ocasio, E, Mitchell Aide, T and Owen McMillan, W (2006) The influence of spatial scale on the genetic structure of a widespread tropical wetland tree, Pterocarpus officinalis (Fabaceae). Conservation Genetics 7: 251266.
Roby, K, Dobbs, M, Clark, D, Boyer, S and Threadgill, G (2000) High Precise DNA Sizing on the CEQtm 2000 Fragment Analysis System. Fullerton, CA: Beckman Coulter.
Rocha, OJ and Aguilar, G (2001) Reproductive biology of the dry forest tree Enterolobium cyclocarpum (guanacaste) in Costa Rica: a comparison between trees left in pastures and trees in continuous forest. American Journal of Botany 88: 16071614.
Rousset, F (1997) Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-statistics under isolation by distance. Genetics 145: 12191228.
Rudinger, M, Dacasa, C, Glaeser, J, Hebel, I and Dounavi, A (2008) Genetic structures of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) populations in Germany at sites differing in water regimes. Canadian Journal of Forest Resources 38: 11991210.
Schuelke, M (2000) An economic method for the fluorescent labeling of PCR fragments. Nature Biotechnology 18: 233234.
Streiff, R, Labbe, T, Bacilieri, R, Steinkellner, H, Glossl, J and Kremer, A (1998) Within-population genetic structure in Quercus robur L. & Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. assessed with isozymes and microsatellites. Molecular Ecology 7: 317328.
Taylor, SMO (1971) Ecological and genetic isolation of Fraxinus americana and Fraxinus pennsylvanica . PhD Dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing.
Trusty, JL, Miller, I, Boyd, RS and Goertzen, LR (2009) Ex situ conservation of the federally endangered plant species Clematis socialis Kral (Ranunculaceae). Natural Areas Journal 29: 376384.
USDA NRCS (2006) Web Soil Survey. Available at: http://websoilsurey.nrcs.usda.gov (accessed accessed 15 November 2006). Lincoln, NE: National Soil Survey Center.
USDA NRCS (2010) The PLANTS Database. Available at: http://plants.usda.gov (accessed accessed 30 April 2010). Baton Rouge, LA: National Plant Data Center.
Van Rossum, F, Campos De Sousa, S and Triest, L (2004) Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in an agricultural landscape on the common Primula veris, and comparison with its rare congener, P. vulgaris . Conservation Genetics 5: 231245.
Weir, BS (1996) Genetic Data Analysis II. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer.
Widrlechner, MP (2010) Building a comprehensive collection of ash germplasm. Proceedings of the 4th Global Botanic Gardens Congress, June 2010, Dublin, Ireland .
Xie, J, Agrama, HA, Kong, D, Zhuang, J, Hu, B, Wan, Y and Yan, W (2010) Genetic diversity associated with conservation of endangered Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 57: 597609.
Yeh, FC, Yang, R and Boyle, T (1999) Popgene Version 1.31: Microsoft Window-based Freeware for Population Genetic Analysis. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta.
Yonezawa, K and Ichihashi, H (1989) Sample size for collecting germplasm from natural plant populations in view of the genotypic multiplicity of seed embryos borne on a single plant. Euphytica 41: 9197.
Zoro Bi, I, Maquet, A, Degreef, J, Wathelet, B and Baudoin, JP (1998) Sample size for collecting seeds in germplasm conservation: the case of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 97: 187194.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Hausman Supplementary Material
Figures and Tables

 Word (205 KB)
205 KB

Genetic structure of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica): implications for the establishment of ex situ conservation protocols in light of the invasion of the emerald ash borer

  • Constance E. Hausman (a1) (a2), Michelle M. Bertke (a2), John F. Jaeger (a3) and Oscar J. Rocha (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed