Skip to main content Accessibility help

Genetic outcomes from a farmer-assisted landrace selection programme to develop a synthetic variety of broccoli

  • Simona Ciancaleoni (a1), Lorenzo Raggi (a1) and Valeria Negri (a1)


To develop synthetic varieties (Syn) of broccoli for organic agriculture, we initiated a breeding programme from a landrace (LR). A Syn was obtained through a farmer-assisted selection programme that mirrors the original LR. The diversity level of the Syn was assessed using 14 putatively neutral microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats (SSR)) and seven SSR related to genes involved in flowering control. Four commercial F1 hybrids were also assessed. Despite the strict selection procedure applied by the farmer to reproduce the LR annually and to obtain the Syn, the detected diversity level was high and similar to that of non-selected LRs. The possible reasons for these genetic outcomes (i.e. SSR position in the genome and farmer selection methods) are discussed here.


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author. Fax: +390755856224. E-mail:


Hide All
Aksoy, S, Almeida-Val, VHF, Azevedo, VCR, Baucom, R, Bazaga, P, Beheregaray, LB, Bennetzen, JL, Brassaloti, RA, Burgess, TI, Caccone, A, Chang, S-M, Ciampi, AY, Ciancaleoni, S, Climaco, G, Clouet, C, Coimbra, MRM, Coutinho, LL, Dantas, HL, De Vega, C, Echodu, R, Enyaru, J, Figueira, A, Filho, MAG, Foltz, B, Fressigne, L, Gadomski, M, Gauthier, N, Herrera, CM, Hyseni, C, Jorge, EC, Zkaczmarczyk, D, Knott, E, Kuester, A, Lima, APS, Lima, MA, Lima, MP, Longo, ALB, Lor, G, Maggioni, R, Marques, TS, Martins, AR, Matoso, DA, Medrano, M, Mendonca, MAC, Mettler, R, Nascimento, PRM, Negri, V, Oliveira, KKC, Oliveira, LO, Ovcarenko, I, Paula-Silva, MN, Raggi, L, Sandoval-Castillo, J, Anjos Santos, CH, Martinschaefer, H, Segelbacher, G, Seino, MM, Sistrom, M, Taole, MM, Teske, PR, Tsagkarakou, A, Verdade, LM, Villela, PMS, Vinson, CC, Wingfield, BD and Wingfield, MJ (2013) Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2012–30 November 2012. Molecular Ecology Resources 13: 341343.
Cheng, X, Xu, J, Xia, S, Gu, J, Yang, Y, Fu, J, Qian, Xi, Zhang, S, Wu, F and Liu, K (2009) Development and genetic mapping of microsatellite markers from genome survey sequences in Brassica napus . Theoretical and Applied Genetics 118: 11211131.
Ciancaleoni, S, Chiarenza, GL, Raggi, L, Branca, F and Negri, V (2013) Diversity characterisation of broccoli landraces for their on-farm (in situ) safeguard and use in breeding programs. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution doi:101007/s10722-013-0049-2.
Falcinelli, M and Torricelli, R (2004) A new variety of luzerne for Italian organic farming. Proceeding of the First World Conference on Organic Seed, 5–7 July 2004, Rome, Italy . Rome: FAO, pp. 185186.
FAOSTAT (2011) Available at: (accessed 24 June 2013).
Hammer, K and Gladis, TH (2001) Nutzung genetischer Ressourcen – ökologischer Wert der Biodiversität Schriften Genetik Resourcen. vol. 16. Bonn: Zadi.
Hammer, K, Gladis, TH, Laghetti, G and Pignone, D (2013) The wild and the grown – remarks on Brassica. International Journal of AgriScience 3: 453480.
ISTAT (2011) Available at: = DCSP_COLTIVAZ&Lang (accessed 21 January 2013).
Koutis, K, Mavromatis, AG, Baxevanos, D and Kuotsika-Sotiriou, M (2012) Multienvironmental evaluation of wheat landraces by GGE biplot analysis for organic breeding. Journal of Agricultural Science 3: 6674.
Lammerts van Bueren, ET, Jones, SS, Tamm, L, Murphy, KM, Myers, JR, Leifert, C and Messmer, MM (2011) The need to breed crop varieties suitable for organic farming, using wheat, tomato and broccoli as examples: A review. Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 58: 193205.
Li, H, Chen, X, Yang, Y, Xu, J, Gu, J, Fu, J, Qian, X, Zhang, S, Wu, J and Liu, K (2011) Development and genetic mapping of microsatellite markers from whole genome shotgun sequences in Brassica oleracea . Molecular Breeding 28: 585596.
Love, CG, Batley, J, Lim, G, Robinson, AJ, Savage, D, Singh, D, Spangenberg, GC and Edwards, D (2004) New computational tools for Brassica genome research. Comparative and Functional Genomics 5: 276280.
Negri, V, Maxted, N and Veteläinen, M (2009) European landrace conservation: an introduction. In: Vetelainen, M, Negri, V and Maxted, N (eds) European Landraces: On-farm Conservation, Management and Use. Bioversity Technical Bulletin No. 15 . Rome: Bioversity International Publications, pp. 122.
Negri, V, Pacicco, L, Bodesmo, M and Torricelli, R (2013) The First Italian Inventory of in situ Maintained Landraces. On CD ROM . ISBN 978-88-6074-279-7. Perugia: Morlacchi Editrice.
Nei, M (1978) Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89: 583590.
Peakall, R and Smouse, PE (2006) GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular Ecology Notes 6: 288295.
Polegri, L and Negri, V (2010) Molecular markers for promoting agro-biodiversity conservation: a case study from Italy. How cowpea landraces were saved from extinction. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 57: 867880.
Tamura, K, Peterson, D, Peterson, N, Stecher, G, Nei, M and Kumar, S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 27312739.
Torricelli, R, Tiranti, B, Spataro, G, Castellini, G, Albertini, E, Falcinelli, M and Negri, V (2013) Differentiation and structure of an Italian landrace of celery (Apium graveolens L.): inferences for on farm conservation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 60: 9951006.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Ciancaleoni Supplementary Material
Table S1

 PDF (9 KB)
9 KB

Genetic outcomes from a farmer-assisted landrace selection programme to develop a synthetic variety of broccoli

  • Simona Ciancaleoni (a1), Lorenzo Raggi (a1) and Valeria Negri (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed