Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax are the most extensively distributed trypanosomes responsible for diseases in livestock. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays revealed a high immunological cross-reaction between these two parasites. An antigen with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa (p64), which exhibited cross-reactivity with T. vivax, was purified to homogeneity from a Venezuelan isolate of T. evansi. This antigen is glycosylated, contains a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor and appeared to be localized through the cell except in the nucleus, indicating that it could primarily be confined to the parasite surface. These results, together with its relative abundance and apparent molecular weight, suggest that p64 probably corresponds to the soluble form of a variable surface glycoprotein from T. evansi. Anti-p64 polyclonal antibodies, raised on mice, recognized a 53 kDa polypeptide band from a Venezuelan isolate of T. vivax on Western blots. Additionally, sera obtained from naturally infected animals also recognized p64, suggesting its potential use as a diagnostic reagent. Mild acid treatment only slightly decreased the immunorecognition of p64, suggesting its potential use as a diagnostic reagent. Mild acid treatment only slightly decreased the immunorecognition of p64, demonstrating that another relevant cross-reacting epitope, different than the inositol-1,2-cyclic phosphate of the cross-reacting determinant, must exist in p64. To date, p64 represents the first antigen isolated and partially characterized from T. evansi.