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Vaccine development and diagnostics of Dictyocaulus viviparus

  • J. B. McKEAND (a1)


Parasitic bronchitis is a serious disease of cattle and is caused by the nematode, Dictyocaulus viviparus. For over 30 years, a radiation-attenuated larval vaccine has been used for prevention of this disease. This vaccine has been used with considerable success in the UK and parts of Western Europe, however, it has several disadvantages. It has a short shelf- life and the vaccine has to be produced annually necessitating the use of donor calves. Following vaccination, calves must receive further boosting from natural challenge to maintain protective immunity. Sales of the irradiated larval vaccine have decreased dramatically since the 1970s. This is thought to be due to increased reliance of farmers on anthelmintic programmes to control lungworm infection. It is possible that, under certain circumstances, these programmes do not allow sufficient parasite exposure to stimulate protective immunity to further Dictyocaulus challenge. This is borne out by the recent documented increase in the number of outbreaks of parasitic bronchitis in the UK. A stable vaccine against D. viviparus that is capable of stimulating a more prolonged immunity would be beneficial. Recent research has been directed at identification and isolation of components thought to be involved in parasite survival in the host and examination of their potential as vaccine candidates. One of these components is acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme secreted by adult worms. This review describes the development of the secreted AChE as a vaccine candidate, as well as documenting recent developments in the immunodiagnosis of D. viviparus.


Corresponding author

Tel: 0151 794 6089, Fax: 0161 794 6034; E-mail: J. B.


Vaccine development and diagnostics of Dictyocaulus viviparus

  • J. B. McKEAND (a1)


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