Amen, R. I., Baggen, J. M. C., Bezemer, P. D. & De Jong-Brink, M. (1992). Modulation of the activity of the internal defence system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis by the avian schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata. Parasitology 104, 33–40.
Boer, H. H., Van Minnen, J., Stefano, G. B. & Leung, M. K. (1987). Opioid peptides in the central nervous system (CNS) of Lymnaea stagnalis. In Neurobiology: Molluscan Models, (ed. Boer, H. H., Geraerts, W. P. M. & Joosse, J.) pp. 68–73. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York: Elsevier's North-Holland Publishing Company.
Carr, D. J. J. (1991). The role of endogenous opioids and their receptors in the immune system. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 198, 710–20.
Duveaux-Miret, O., Dissous, C., Gautron, J. P., Pattou, E., Kordon, C. & Capron, A. (1990). The helminth Schistosoma mansoni expresses a peptide similar to human β-endorphin and possesses a proopiomelanocortin-related gene. The New Biologist 2, 93–9.
Duveaux-Miret, O., Stefano, G. B., Smith, I. M., Dissous, C. & Capron, A. (1992). Immunosuppression in the definitive and intermediate hosts of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni by release of immunoactive peptides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89, 778–81.
Fisher, W. S. (1988). Environmental influence on bivalve haemocyte function. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 18, 225–37.
Geraerts, W. P. M., Van Leeuwen, J. P. Th., Nuyt, K & De With, N. D. (1981). Cardioactive peptides of the CNS of the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Experientia 37, 1168–9.
Leung, M. K., Boer, H. H., Van Minnen, J., Lundy, J. & Stefano, G. B. (1990). Evidence for an enkephalinergic system in the nervous system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Brain Research 531, 66–71.
Lie, K. J. (1982). Survival of Schistosoma mansoni and other trematode larvae in the snail Biomphalaria glabrata. A discussion of the interference theory. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 34, 111–22.
Lie, K. J., Jeong, K. H. & Heyneman, D. (1981). Selective interference with granulocyte function induced by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda) larvae in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca). Journal of Parasitology 67, 790–6.
Lodes, M. J. & Yoshino, T. P. (1989). Characterization of excretory-secretory proteins synthesized in vitro by Schistosoma mansoni primary sporocysts. Journal of Parasitology 75, 853–62.
Lodes, M. J., Connors, V. A. & Yoshino, T. P. (1991). Isolation and functional characterization of snail hemocyte-modulating polypeptide from primary sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 49, 1–10.
Loker, E. S., Bayne, C. J. & Yui, M. A. (1986). Echinostoma paraensei: hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata as targets of echinostome mediated interference with host snail resistance to Schistosoma mansoni. Experimental Parasitology 62, 149–54.
Lolait, S. J., Clements, J. A., Markwick, A. J., Cheng, C., Mcnally, M., Smith, A. I. & Funder, J. W. (1986). Proopiomelanocortin messenger ribonucleic acid and post-translational processing of beta-endorphin in spleen macrophages. Journal of Clinical Investigation 77, 1776–9.
Meuleman, E. A., Huyer, A. R. & Mooij, J. H. (1984). Maintenance of the life cycle of Trichobilharzia ocellata via the duck Anas platyrhynchos and the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 34, 414–17.
Mccormick-Ray, M. G. & Howard, T. (1991). Morphology and mobility of oyster hemocytes: evidence for seasonal variations. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 58, 219–30.
Schallig, H. D. F. H., Schut, A., Van Der Knaap, W. P. W. & De Jong-Brink, M. (1990). A simplified medium for the in vitro culture of mother sporocysts of the schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata. Parasitology Research 76, 278–9.
Schallig, H. D. F. H., Sassen, M. J. M. & De Jong-Brink, M. (1992). In vitro release of the anti-gonadotropic hormone, schistosomin, from the central nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis is induced with a methanolic extract of Trichobilharzia ocellata. Parasitology 104, 309–14.
Scheffé, H. (1959). The Analysis of Variance. New York: Wiley.
Schot, L. P. C., Boer, H. H. & Montagne-Wajer, C. (1984). Characterisation of multiple immuno-reactive neurons in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, with different fixatives and antisera adsorbed with the homologous and heterologous antigen. Histochemistry 81, 373–8.
Stefano, G. B. (1989). Role of opioid neuropeptides in immunoregulation. Progress in Neurobiology 33, 149–59.
Stefano, G. B., Leung, M. K., Zhao, X. & Scharrer, B. (1989 a). Evidence for the involvement of opioid neuropeptides in the adherence and migration of immunocompetent invertebrate hemocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 86, 626–30.
Stefano, G. B., Cadet, P. & Scharrer, B. (1989 b). Stimulatory effects of opioid neuropeptides on locomotory activity and conformational changes in invertebrate and human immunocytes: evidence for a subtype of δ receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 86, 6307–11.
Van Der Steen, W. J., Van Den Hoven, N. P. & Jager, J. C. (1969). A method for breeding and studying freshwater snails under continuous water change, with some remarks on growth and reproduction in Lymnaea stagnalis (L). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 19, 131–9.
Weigent, D. A., Carr, D. J. J. & Blalock, J. E. (1990). Bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 579, 17–27.
Yoshino, T. P. & Lodes, M. J. (1988). Secretory protein biosynthesis in snail hemocytes: in vitro modulation by larval schistosome excretory-secretory products. Journal of Parasitology 74, 538–47.