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Seasonality of helminth infection in wild red deer varies between individuals and between parasite taxa

  • Gregory F. Albery (a1), Fiona Kenyon (a2), Alison Morris (a1), Sean Morris (a1), Daniel H. Nussey (a1) and Josephine M. Pemberton (a1)...


Parasitism in wild mammals can vary according to myriad intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many of which vary seasonally. However, seasonal variation in parasitism is rarely studied using repeated samples from known individuals. Here we used a wild population of individually recognized red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Isle of Rum to quantify seasonality and intrinsic factors affecting gastrointestinal helminth parasitism over the course of a year. We collected 1020 non-invasive faecal samples from 328 known individuals which we then analysed for propagules of three helminth taxa: strongyle nematodes, the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and the tissue nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi. Zero-inflated Poisson models were used to investigate how season, age and sex were associated with parasite prevalence and count intensity, while Poisson models were used to quantify individual repeatability within and between sampling seasons. Parasite intensity and prevalence varied according to all investigated factors, with opposing seasonality, age profiles and sex biases between parasite taxa. Repeatability was moderate, decreased between seasons and varied between parasites; both F. hepatica and E. cervi showed significant between-season repeatability, while strongyle nematode counts were only repeatable within-season and showed no repeatability within individuals across the year.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Gregory F. Albery, E-mail:


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Seasonality of helminth infection in wild red deer varies between individuals and between parasite taxa

  • Gregory F. Albery (a1), Fiona Kenyon (a2), Alison Morris (a1), Sean Morris (a1), Daniel H. Nussey (a1) and Josephine M. Pemberton (a1)...


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