Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae): insights into the egg production strategy of parasitic copepods

  • D. G. FRADE (a1), M. J. SANTOS (a1) (a2) and F. I. CAVALEIRO (a1)

Summary

The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller O. F., 1776), a caligid copepod, which is commonly found infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), is studied in detail for the first time. Seasonal variation in body dimensions and reproductive effort are analysed. Data for 120 ovigerous females, 30 from each season of the year, were considered in the analyses. Females were larger and produced a larger number of smaller eggs in winter, than during the summer. The relationship between egg number and egg size is similar to that recorded for other copepods exploiting fish hosts. Much of the recorded variation was also similar to that reported for a copepod parasitic on an invertebrate host, which suggests the possibility of a general trend in copepod reproduction. Overall, our results provide further support for the hypothesis that there is an alternation of summer and winter generations.

Copyright

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Faculdade de Ciências, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, s/n, Edifício FC4, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal. E-mail: fcavaleiro@fc.up.pt

References

Hide All
Angilletta, M., Steury, T. and Sears, M. (2004). Temperature, growth rate, and body size in ectotherms: fitting pieces of a life-history puzzle. Integrative and Comparative Biology 44, 498509.
Anstensrud, M. (1990 a). Mating strategies of two parasitic copepods [(Lernaeocera branchialis (L.) (Pennellidae) and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller) (Caligidae)] on flounder: polygamy, sex-specific age at maturity and sex ratio. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 136, 141158.
Anstensrud, M. (1990 b). Moulting and mating in Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 70, 269281.
Anstensrud, M. (1992). Mate guarding and mate choice in two copepods, Lernaeocera branchialis (L.) (Pennellidae) and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Muller) (Caligidae), parasitic on flounder. Journal of Crustacean Biology 12, 3140.
Atkinson, D. (1995). Effects of temperature on the size of aquatic ectotherms: exceptions to the general rule. Journal of Thermal Biology 20, 6174.
Boxaspen, K. (2006). A review on the biology and genetics of sea lice. ICES Journal of Marine Species 63, 13041316.
Boxshall, G. (1974 a). Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (O. F. Müller, 1776); a description, a review and some comparisons with the genus Caligus Müller, 1785. Journal of Natural History 8, 445468.
Boxshall, G. (1974 b). The developmental stages of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller, 1776) (Copepoda: Caligidae). Journal of Natural History 8, 681700.
Boxshall, G. (1974 c). The population dynamics of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller): seasonal variation in abundance and age structure. Parasitology 69, 361371.
Boxshall, G. (1974 d). The population dynamics of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller): dispersion pattern. Parasitology 69, 373390.
Boxshall, G. (1976). The host specificity of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller, 1776) (Copepoda: Caligidae). Journal of Fish Biology 8, 255264.
Boxshall, G. (1977). The histopathology of infection by Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller) (Copepoda: Caligidae). Journal of Fish Biology 10, 411415.
Bravo, S., Erranz, F. and Lagos, C. (2009). A comparison of sea lice, Caligus rogercresseyi, fecundity in four areas in southern Chile. Journal of Fish Disease 32, 107113.
Bravo, S., Pozo, V., Silva, M. T. and Abarca, D. (2013). Comparison of the fecundity rate of Caligus rogercresseyi infesting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) on farms in two regions of Chile. Aquaculture 404–405, 5558.
Caley, M., Schwarzkopf, L. and Shine, R. (2001). Does total reproductive effort evolve independently of offspring size? Evolution 55, 12451248.
Cavaleiro, F. I. and Santos, M. J. (2007). Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) along the North-Central portuguese coast. Journal of Parasitology 93, 12181222.
Cavaleiro, F. I. and Santos, M. J. (2009). Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae). Parasitology 136, 855865.
Cavaleiro, F. I. and Santos, M. J. (2014). Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies. International Journal of Parasitology 44, 173182.
Costello, M. (2009). The global economic cost of sea lice to the salmonid farming industry. Journal of Fish Diseases 32, 115118.
De Meeûs, T., Raibaut, A. and Renaud, F. (1993). Comparative life history of two species of sea lice. In Pathogens of Wild and Farmed Fish: Sea Lice (ed. Boxshall, G. and Defaye, D.), pp. 6167. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK.
European Environmental Agency (2008). Biogeographical Regions in Europe: The North-East Atlantic Ocean – Huge, Deep and Heavily Exploited. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/report_2002_0524_154909/page121.html/#1
Godfray, H. C. J. (1987). The evolution of invertebrate clutch size. Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology 4, 117154.
Heins, D. C., Baker, J. A. and Martin, H. C. (2002). The ‘crowding effect’ in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus: density-dependent effects on plerocercoid size and infectivity. Journal of Parasitology 88, 302307.
Heuch, P., Nordhagen, J. and Schram, T. (2000). Egg production in the salmon louse [Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer)] in relation to origin and water temperature. Aquaculture Research 31, 805814.
Instituto de Metereologia – IP Portugal (2009). Acompanhamento do Clima: Mapas e Gráficos. http://www.meteo.pt/pt/oclima/acompanhamento/index.jsp?selTipo=m&selVar=su&selAna=to&selAno=2005.
Jones, J. T., Breeze, P. and Kusel, J. R. (1989). Schistosome fecundity: influence of host genotype and intensity of infection. International Journal for Parasitology 19, 769777.
Lopez Cazorla, A. (2000). Age structure of the population of weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier) in the Bahía Blanca waters, Argentina. Fisheries Research 46, 279286.
Marques, J. F., Santos, M. J. and Cabral, H. N. (2006 a). Soleidae macroparasites along the Portuguese coast: latitudinal variation and host–parasite associations. Marine Biology 150, 285298.
Marques, J. F., Teixeira, C. and Cabral, H. (2006 b). Differentiation of commercially important flatfish populations along the Portuguese coast: evidence from morphology and parasitology. Fisheries Research 81, 293305.
Möller, H. (1978). The effects of salinity and temperature on the development and survival of fish parasites. Journal of Fish Biology 12, 311323.
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2009). Multi-channel sea surface temperature image obtained from http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/DATA_PRODUCT/SST maintained by NASA JPL Physical Oceanography DAAC, Pasadena, CA. Data for the image were provided by the Naval Oceanography Office (NAVOCEANO).
Nordhagen, J., Heuch, P. and Schram, T. (2000). Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae). Contributions to Zoology 69, 99108.
Poulin, R. (1995). Clutch size and egg size in free-living and parasitic copepods: a comparative analysis. Evolution 49, 325336.
Poulin, R. (2007). Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites, 2nd Edn. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA.
Ritchie, G., Mordue, A., Pike, A. and Rae, H. (1993). The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus salmonis adult females in relation to seasonal variability of temperature and photoperiod. In Pathogens of Wild and Farmed Fish: Sea Lice (ed. Boxshall, G. and Defaye, D.), pp. 153165. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK.
Rohde, K. (1984). Ecology of marine parasites. Helgoländer Meeresunters 37, 533.
Schmidt, V., Zander, S., Körting, W. and Steinhagen, D. (2003 a). Parasites of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in ecosystem monitoring. A. Infection characteristics of potential indicator species. Helgoland Marine Research 57, 236251.
Schmidt, V., Zander, S., Körting, W. and Steinhagen, D. (2003 b). Parasites of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in ecosystem monitoring. C. Pollution effects on the parasite community and a comparison to biomarker responses. Helgoland Marine Research 57, 262271.
Schmidt, V., Zander, S., Körting, W. and Steinhagen, D. (2003 c). Parasites of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in ecosystem monitoring. B. Community structure and fish parasite biodiversity. Helgoland Marine Research 57, 252261.
Scott, A. (1901). Lepeophtheirus and Lernaea. Liverpool Marine Biology Committee. Memoirs on Typical British Marine Plants and Animals 6, 154.
Skerritt, D. J. (2010). A review of the European flounder Platichthys flesus – Biology, Life History and Trends in Population. Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK.
Szalai, A. J. and Dick, T. A. (1989). Differences in numbers and inequalities in mass and fecundity during the egg production period of Raphidascaris acus (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Parasitology 98, 489495.
Timi, J. T., Lanfranchi, A. L. and Poulin, R. (2005). Is there a trade-off between fecundity and egg volume in the parasitic copepod Lernanthropus cynoscicola? Parasitology Research 95, 14.
van den Broek, W. L. F. (1979). Copepod ectoparasites of Merlangius merlangus and Platichthys flesus . Journal of Fish Biology 14, 371380.
Wichowski, F.-J. (1990). Parasites as indicators of flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) migrations in the lower Elbe River. Fischökologie 2, 126.

Keywords

The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae): insights into the egg production strategy of parasitic copepods

  • D. G. FRADE (a1), M. J. SANTOS (a1) (a2) and F. I. CAVALEIRO (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed