Resistance against anthelmintics is widespread, particularly in parasitic nematode populations of small ruminants. Several new techniques or supplements have been developed or are under investigation. Biological control (BC) is one of these new methods. The net-trapping predacious fungus Duddingtonia flagrans produces thick walled resting spores, chlamydospores, which are able to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract of cattle, horses, sheep and pigs. Under Danish climatic conditions it has been shown that the number of parasite larvae on pasture and the worm burden of the grazing animals is significantly reduced when animals are fed spores during the initial 2–3 months of the grazing season. Work with D. flagrans in France, Australia, USA, and Mexico has confirmed the strong BC potential of this fungus. Today much work is going into development of suitable delivery systems for grazing livestock worldwide. Ultimately, BC should be implemented in integrated parasite control strategies, both in conventional and organic livestock production.
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