Skip to main content Accessibility help

Intracellular stages of Trypanosoma lewisi in fleas and attempts to find such stages in other trypanosome species

  • David H. Molyneux (a1)


Intracellular forms of Trypanosoma lewisi have been found in the mid-gut cells of the flea, Nosopsyllus fasciatus. These stages have been found only infrequently, and in only two of the four strains of T. lewisi studied.

Attempts to find similar stages in Trypanosoma nabiasi, evotomys and microti were not successful.

The possible significance of these forms is discussed.

The financial assistance of the Agricultural Research Council is gratefully acknowledged. The author is also indebted to Dr P. Tate for his enthusiasm, help and guidance throughout the course of the study.



Hide All
Anderson, S. A. (1956). Trypanosoma lewisi in Xenopsylla cheopis. Unpublished DAPE thesis. University of London.
Baldrey, R. S. H. (1909). Versuche und Beobachtungen über die Entwicklung von Trypanosoma lewisi in der Rattenlaus Haematopinus spinulosus. Arch. Protistenk. 15, 326–32.
Becker, E. R. & Roudabush, R. L. (1934). Trypanosoma iowenis n.sp. and Babesia itellic n.sp. from Citellus tridecemlineatus, and Trypanosoma hixsoni n.sp. from Citellus franklini. Iowa St. Coll. J. Sci. 8, 527–31.
Breinl, A. & Hindle, E. (1909). Observations on the life-history of Trypanosoma lewisi in the rat louse (Haematopinus spinulosus). Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 3, 553–64.
Brumpt, E. (1913). Evolution de Trypanosoma lewisi, duttoni, nabiasi, blanchardi chez les puces et les punaises. Transmission par les dejections. Comparison avec T. cruzi. Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 6, 167–71.
Channon, H. A. & Wright, H. D. (1927). Observations on trypanosomiasis of rabbits, and its natural mode of transmission. J. Path. Bact. 30, 253–60.
Davis, B. S. (1952). Studies on the trypanosomes of some Californian mammals. Univ. Calif. Publs Zool. 57, 145250.
Garnham, P. C. C. (1955). The comparative pathogenicity of protozoa in their vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. No. 5. Symp. Soc. gen. Microbiol. pp.191206.
Grassé, P. (1937). Discussion of Nattan-Larrier's paper at 12th Int. Congr. Zool. Lisbon, 3, 1920.
Grewal, M. S. (1957). The life-cycle of the British rabbit trypanosome, Trypanosoma nabiasi Railliet, 1895. Parasitology 47, 100–18.
Holliman, R. B. (1966). A Trypanosoma lewisi-like organism from the rabbit Sylvilagus floridanus, in Virginia. J. Parasit. 52, 622.
Irving, D. L. (1965). Studies on Trypanosoma lewisi (Kent) in the invertebrate host. B.Sc. Thesis. Edinburgh University.
Krampitz, H. E. (1959). Uber das europaische Waldmaustrypanosom, Trypanosoma grosi Laveran & Pettit 1909 (Protomonadina, Trypanosomidae). Z. ParasitKde. 19, 232–58.
Laveran, A. & Franchini, G. (1913). Trypanosoma talpae chez Palaeopsylla gracilis. C. r. Séanc. Soc. Biol. 74, 1254–56.
Leeson, H. S. (1932). Methods of rearing and maintaining large stocks of fleas and mosquitoes for experimental purposes. Bull. ent. Res. 23, 2531.
Lincicome, D. R. & Shepperson, J. R. (1965). Experimental evidence for molecular exchange between a dependent trypanosome and its host. Expl Parasit. 17, 148–67.
Minchin, E. A. & Thomson, J. D. (1911). On the occurrence of an intracellular stage of development of Trypanosoma lewisi in the rat-flea. Brit. med. J. (19 August 1911).
Minchin, E. A. & Thomson, J. D. (1915). The rat-trypanosome, Trypanosoma lewisi, in its relation to the rat-flea, Ceratophyllus fasciatus. Q. Jl microsc. Sci. 60, 463692.
Molyneux, D. H. (1967). The life-history of Trypanosoma lewisi in Nosopsyllus fasciatus. Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 61, 450.
Nöller, W. (1912). Die Ubertragungsweise der Rattentrypanosomen durch Flöhe. Arch. Protistenk. 25, 386424.
Prowazek, S. von. (1905). Studies uber Saugetiertrypanosomen. Arb. K. Gesundhamt. 22, 351–95.
Rabinowitsch, L. & Kempner, W. (1899). Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Blutparasiten, speciell der Rattentrypanosomen. Z. Hyg. Infektkrankh. 30, 251–94.
Regendanz, P. (1929). Die multiple Teilung des Trypanosoma criceti seine entwicklung in Hundeflohe und ubertragungsversuche auf den Hamster. Z. ParasitKde. 2, 4454.
Rodenwalt, E. (1909). Trypanosoma lewisi in Haematopinus spinulosus. Zenthl. Bakt. ParasitKde. 52, 3042.
Stephen, L. E. (1956). Examination of the life-cycle of Trypanosoma lewisi in the rat and in the rat-flea, Xenopsylla cheopis. Unpublished D.A.P.E. Thesis, University of London.
Swellengrebel, N. H. & Strickland, C. (1910). The development of Trypanosoma lewisi outside the vertebrate host. Parasitology 3, 360–89.
Vilensky, L. (1960). The life-cycle of Trypanosoma acomys in Parapulex chefrenis and of Trypanosoma lewisi in Xenopsylla cheopis. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Parasitology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Quoted by Zuckerman, A., Wertheim, G., & Theodor, O. Survey of the parasites of wild birds and mammals in Israel. From the Research Report of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1963/4, p. 154.
Wenyon, C. M. (1913). Experiments on the transmission of Trypanosoma lewisi by means of fleas. J. Lond. Sch. trop. Med. 2, 119–23.
Wenyon, C. M. (1926). Protozoology, vol. 1. London: Baillière, Tindall and Cox.
Wigglesworth, V. B. (1959). A simple method for cutting sections on the 0·5 μ to 1 μ range, and for sections of chitin. Q. Jl microsc. Sci. 100, 315–20.
Wood, F. D. (1936). Trypanosoma neotomae, sp.nov., in the dusky-footed wood rat and the wood rat flea. Univ. Calif. Publs Zool. 41, 133–44.
Yamasaki, S. (1924). Über Leptomonas ctenocephali, Trypanosoma lewisi und pathogene Trypanosomenarten im Hundfloh. Arch. Protistenk. 48, 136–79.

Intracellular stages of Trypanosoma lewisi in fleas and attempts to find such stages in other trypanosome species

  • David H. Molyneux (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed