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Immunological footprint: the development of a child's immune system in environments rich in microorganisms and parasites

  • YENNY DJUARDI (a1) (a2), LINDA J. WAMMES (a2), TANIAWATI SUPALI (a1), ERLIYANI SARTONO (a2) and MARIA YAZDANBAKHSH (a2)...

Summary

The shaping of a child's immune system starts in utero, with possible long-term consequences in later life. This review highlights the studies conducted on the development of the immune system in early childhood up to school-age, discussing the impact that environmental factors may have. Emphasis has been put on studies conducted in geographical regions where exposure to micro-organisms and parasites are particularly high, and the effect that maternal exposures to these may have on an infant's immune responses to third-party antigens. In this respect we discuss the effect on responses to vaccines, co-infections and on the development of allergic disorders. In addition, studies of the impact that such environmental factors may have on slightly older (school) children are highlighted emphasizing the need for large studies in low to middle income countries, that are sufficiently powered and have longitudinal follow-up components to understand the immunological footprint of a child and the consequences throughout life.

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Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Yenny Djuardi, MD. Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia, Salemba 6, Jakarta 10430, Indonésia. Tel: +6221 3914607. Fax: +6221 39832018. E-mail: yenny_djuardi@yahoo.com
Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands. Tel: +3171 5265072. Fax: +3171 5266907. E-mail: y.djuardi@lumc.nl

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Keywords

Immunological footprint: the development of a child's immune system in environments rich in microorganisms and parasites

  • YENNY DJUARDI (a1) (a2), LINDA J. WAMMES (a2), TANIAWATI SUPALI (a1), ERLIYANI SARTONO (a2) and MARIA YAZDANBAKHSH (a2)...

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