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High prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium × Schistosoma bovis hybrids in schoolchildren in Côte d'Ivoire

  • Etienne K. Angora (a1) (a2) (a3), Jean-François Allienne (a4), Olivier Rey (a4), Hervé Menan (a3), André O. Touré (a5), Jean T. Coulibaly (a1) (a2) (a6) (a7), Giovanna Raso (a1) (a2), William Yavo (a3), Eliézer K. N'Goran (a6) (a7), Jürg Utzinger (a1) (a2), Oliver Balmer (a1) (a2) and Jérôme Boissier (a4)...


Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease, though it is highly prevalent in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. While Schistosoma haematobium-bovis hybrids have been reported in West Africa, no data about Schistosoma hybrids in humans are available from Côte d'Ivoire. This study aimed to identify and quantify S. haematobium-bovis hybrids among schoolchildren in four localities of Côte d'Ivoire. Urine samples were collected and examined by filtration to detect Schistosoma eggs. Eggs were hatched and 503 miracidia were individually collected and stored on Whatman® FTA cards for molecular analysis. Individual miracidia were molecularly characterized by analysis of mitochondrial cox1 and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS 2) DNA regions. A mitochondrial cox1-based diagnostic polymerase chain reaction was performed on 459 miracidia, with 239 (52.1%) exhibiting the typical band for S. haematobium and 220 (47.9%) the S. bovis band. The cox1 and ITS 2 amplicons were Sanger sequenced from 40 randomly selected miracidia to confirm species and hybrids status. Among the 33 cox1 sequences analysed, we identified 15 S. haematobium sequences (45.5%) belonging to seven haplotypes and 18 S. bovis sequences (54.5%) belonging to 12 haplotypes. Of 40 ITS 2 sequences analysed, 31 (77.5%) were assigned to pure S. haematobium, four (10.0%) to pure S. bovis and five (12.5%) to S. haematobium-bovis hybrids. Our findings suggest that S. haematobium-bovis hybrids are common in Côte d'Ivoire. Hence, intense prospection of domestic and wild animals is warranted to determine whether zoonotic transmission occurs.


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Author for correspondence: Jérôme Boissier, E-mail:


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These authors contributed equally to this work.



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High prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium × Schistosoma bovis hybrids in schoolchildren in Côte d'Ivoire

  • Etienne K. Angora (a1) (a2) (a3), Jean-François Allienne (a4), Olivier Rey (a4), Hervé Menan (a3), André O. Touré (a5), Jean T. Coulibaly (a1) (a2) (a6) (a7), Giovanna Raso (a1) (a2), William Yavo (a3), Eliézer K. N'Goran (a6) (a7), Jürg Utzinger (a1) (a2), Oliver Balmer (a1) (a2) and Jérôme Boissier (a4)...


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