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Genetic manipulation of schistosomes – progress with integration competent vectors



Draft genome sequences for Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni are now available. The schistosome genome encodes ∼13 000 protein-encoding genes for which the functions of few are well understood. Nonetheless, the new genes represent potential intervention targets, and molecular tools are being developed to determine their importance. Over the past 15 years, noteworthy progress has been achieved towards development of tools for gene manipulation and transgenesis of schistosomes. A brief history of genetic manipulation is presented, along with a review of the field with emphasis on reports of integration of transgenes into schistosome chromosomes.


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*Corresponding author: Paul J. Brindley, Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Tropical Medicine, George Washington University Medical Center, Ross Hall, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037USA. Fax: +1 202 994 2913. E-mail:


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Genetic manipulation of schistosomes – progress with integration competent vectors



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