Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Experimental oral and ocular Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits

  • E. JEKLOVA (a1), L. LEVA (a1), K. KOVARCIK (a2), J. MATIASOVIC (a1), V. KUMMER (a1), J. MASKOVA (a1), M. SKORIC (a3) and M. FALDYNA (a1)...

Summary

Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular pathogen that has a wide host distribution, but primarily affects rabbits. The aim of this study was to characterize both the cell-mediated and the antibody response in rabbits after experimental infection using 2 different infection routes: oral and ocular. SPF rabbits were infected with low (103 spores) and high (107 spores) infection doses. Monitored parameters included clinical signs, detection of spores in urine, antibody response detected with ELISA, and cell-mediated immunity detected by antigen-driven lymphocyte proliferation. At week 13 post-infection, half of the rabbits in each group were suppressed by intramuscular administration of dexamethasone. At week 18 post-infection, animals were euthanized. Clinical signs were mild with exacerbation after immunosuppression. Spores in urine and antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity were detected from weeks 5 and 4 post-infection, respectively. Specific IgM was detected 1 week after infection, and IgG antibodies followed 1 week later in rabbits infected with the high dose. Immunological responses were dose dependent. The authors can conclude that both oral and ocular experimental infection with E. cuniculi resulted in an immune response of the infected animals. Rabbits could be used as an experimental model for the study of ocular microsporidiosis.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Department of Immunology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic. Tel: +420 53333 1301. Fax: +420 54121 1229. E-mail: faldyna@vri.cz

References

Hide All
Bywater, J. E. and Kellett, B. S. (1979). Humoral immune response to natural infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits. Laboratory Animals 13, 293297.
Chan, C. M., Theng, J. T., Li, L. and Tan, D. T. (2003). Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in healthy individuals: a case series. Ophthalmology 110, 14201425.
Cox, J. C. and Gallichio, H. A. (1978). Serological and histological studies on adult rabbits with recent, naturally acquired encephalitozoonosis. Research in Veterinary Science 24, 260261.
Cox, J. C., Hamilton, R. C. and Attwood, H. D. (1979). An investigation of the route and progression of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in adult rabbits. The Journal of Protozoology 26, 260265.
Csokai, J., Joachim, A., Gruber, A., Tichy, A., Pakozdy, A. and Künzel, F. (2009). Diagnostic markers for encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits. Veterinary Parasitology 163, 1826.
Dipineto, L., Rinaldi, L., Santaniello, A., Sensale, M., Cuomo, A., Calabria, M., Menna, L. F. and Fioretti, A. (2008). Serological survey for antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits in Italy. Zoonoses and Public Health 55, 173175.
Ewringmann, A. and Göbel, T. (1999). Untersuchungen zur Klinik und Therapie der Encephalitozoonose beim Heimtierkaninchen. Kleintierpraxis 44, 357372.
Harcourt-Brown, F. M. (2002). Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.
Harcourt-Brown, F. M. and Holloway, H. K. (2003). Encephalitozoon cuniculi in pet rabbits. The Veterinary Record 152, 427431.
Hester, J. D., Varma, M., Bobst, A. M., Ware, M. W., Lindquist, H. D. and Schaefer, F. W. (2002). Species-specific detection of three human-pathogenic microsporidial species from the genus Encephalitozoon via fluorogenic 5′ nuclease PCR assays. Molecular and Cellular Probes 16, 435444.
Halánová, M., Cisláková, L., Valencáková, A., Bálent, P., Adam, J. and Trávnicek, M. (2003). Serological screening of occurrence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in humans and animals in Eastern Slovakia. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 10, 117120.
Horvath, M., Svicky, E. and Sevcikova, Z. (1998). Pathomorphological response to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in cyclophosphamide-treated rabbits. Acta Veterinaria Brno 67, 3742.
Jass, A., Matiasek, K., Hartmann, K., Kuchenhoff, H. and Fisher, A. (2006). Evaluation of Liquor analysis and PCR for diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis in the rabbit. Praktische Tierartz 87, 518524.
Jass, A., Matiasek, K., Henke, J., Küchenhoff, H., Hartmann, K. and Fischer, A. (2008). Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in healthy rabbits and rabbits with clinically suspected encephalitozoonosis. The Veterinary Record 162, 618622.
Jeklova, E., Leva, L., Jaglic, Z. and Faldyna, M. (2008). Dexamethasone induced immunosuppression: a rabbit model. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 122, 231240.
Jeklova, E., Jekl, V., Kovarcik, K., Huptman, K., Koudela, B., Neumayerova, H., Knotek, Z. and Faldyna, M. (2010). Usefulness of detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies for diagnosis of clinical encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits. Veterinary Parasitology 170, 143148.
Khan, I. A., Schwartzman, J. D., Kasper, L. H. and Moretto, M. (1999). CD8+ CTLs are essential for protective immunity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection. Journal of Immunology 162, 60866091.
Kunstýr, I., Lev, L. and Naumannm, S. (1986). Humoral antibody response of rabbits to experimental infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Veterinary Parasitology 21, 223232.
Künzel, F. and Joachim, A. (2010). Encephalitozoonosis in rabbits. Parasitology Research 106, 299309.
Mathis, A., Weber, R. and Deplazes, P. (2005). Zoonotic potential of the microsporidia. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 18, 423445.
Schmidt, E. C. and Shadduck, J. A. (1983). Murine encephalitozoonosis model for studying the host-parasite relationship of a chronic infection. Infection and Immunity 40, 936942.
Thomas, C., Finn, M., Twigg, L., Deplazes, P. and Thompson, R. C. (1997). Microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi) in wild rabbits in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 75, 808810.
Visvesvara, G. S., Moura, H., Leitch, J. and Schwartz, D. A. (1999). Culture and propagation of microsporidia. In The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis (ed. Wittner, M. and Weiss, L.M.), pp. 363392. ASM Press, Washington, USA.
Waller, T., Morein, B. and Fabiansson, E. (1978). Humoral immune response to infection with Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits. Laboratory Animals 12, 145148.
Wicher, V., Baughn, R. E., Fuentealba, C., Shadduck, J. A., Abbruscato, F. and Wicher, K. (1991). Enteric infection with an obligate intracellular parasite, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, in an experimental model. Infection and Immunity 59, 22252231.
Wolfer, J., Grahn, B., Wilcock, B. and Percy, D. (1993). Phacoclastic uveitis in the rabbits. Progress in Veterinary and Comparative Ophthalmology 3, 9297.

Keywords

Experimental oral and ocular Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits

  • E. JEKLOVA (a1), L. LEVA (a1), K. KOVARCIK (a2), J. MATIASOVIC (a1), V. KUMMER (a1), J. MASKOVA (a1), M. SKORIC (a3) and M. FALDYNA (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed