Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Estimation of intestinal nematode prevalence: influence of parasite mating patterns

  • H. L. Guyatt (a1) and D. A. P. Bundy (a1)

Summary

Prevalence of infection with intestinal helminths is usually assessed through stool examination. There are limitations in using this technique to measure infection status, since some infected individuals have no patent infection. The relationship between infection assessed by stool examination and actual infection prevalence is investigated for the three major nematode species-Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the bookworms-using a model which describes the presence of non-egg producing worm combinations. The analysis demonstrates that stool examination under-estimates the actual infection prevalence, and that the degree of under-estimation is dependent on the level of infection, the nematode species and the parasite sex ratio. These findings have implications for the validity of epidemiological surveys and the evaluation of control programmes.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Anderson, R. M. (1982). The population dynamics and control of hookworm and roundworm infections. In Population Dynamics of Infectious Diseases (ed. Anderson, R. M.), pp. 67108. London: Chapman and Hall.
Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. (1991). Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Anderson, R. M. & Schad, G. A. (1985). Hookworm burdens and faecal egg counts: an analysis of the biological basis of variation. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79, 812–25.
Arfaa, F. & Ghadirian, E. (1977). Epidemiology and mass-treatment of ascariasis in six rural communities in central Iran. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 26, 866–71.
Augustine, D. L., Nazmi, M., Helmy, M. & McGavran, E. G. (1928). The ova-parasite ratio for Ancylostoma duodenale and Ascaris lumbricoides. Journal of Parasitology 15, 4551.
Bundy, D. A. P. (1986). Epidemiological aspects of Trichuris and trichuriasis in Caribbean communities. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80, 706–18.
Bundy, D. A. P., Cooper, E. S., Thompson, D. E., Anderson, R. M. & Didier, J. M. (1987). Age-related prevalence and intensity of Trichuris trichiura in a St. Lucian community. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81, 8594.
Bundy, D. A. P., Thompson, D. E., Cooper, E. S., Golden, M. H. N. & Anderson, R. M. (1985). Population dynamics and chemotherapeutic control of Trichuris trichiura infection of children in Jamaica and St. Lucia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 79, 759–64.
Burrows, R. B. (1950). On the estimation of Trichuris worm burdens in patients. Journal of Parasitology 36, 227–31.
Chai, J. Y., Kim, K. S., Hong, S. T., Lee, S. H. & Seo, B. S. (1985). Prevalence, worm burden and other epidemiological parameters of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in rural communities in Korea. Korean Journal of Parasitology 23, 241–6.
Correa, M. A. & Mellone, O. (1938). Estudo sobre a postura do Trichuris trichiura. Folha Medica 19, 137–9.
De Vlas, S. J. & Gryseels, B. (1992). Underestimation of Schistosoma mansoni prevalences. Parasitology Today 8, 274–7.
De Vlas, S. J., Gryseels, B., Van Oortmarssen, G. J., Poldermann, A. M. & Habbema, J. D. F. (1992). A model for variations in single and repeated egg counts in Schistosoma mansoni infections. Parasitology 104, 451–60.
Delgado, Y., Garnica, R. & Martinez-Murray, R. (1970). L'irregularite de la ponte d'Ascaris lumbricoides. Annales de Parasitologie (Paris) 45, 223–6.
Elkins, D. B. (1987). The epidemiology and control of Ascaris lumbricoides in an Indian fishing community. Ph.D. thesis. Imperial College, University of London.
Elkins, D. B., Haswell-Elkins, M. & Anderson, R. M. (1986). The epidemiology and control of intestinal helminths in the Publicat Lake region of Southern India. I. Study design and pre- and post-treatment observations on Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80, 774–92.
Feachem, R. G., Bradley, D. J., Garelick, H. & Mara, D. (1983). Sanitation and Disease: Health Aspects of Excreta and Wastewater Management. World Bank Studies in Water Supply and Sanitation No. 3. London: John Wiley and Sons.
Guyatt, H. L. (1992). Parasite population biology and the design and evaluation of helminth control programmes. Ph.D. thesis. Imperial College, University of London.
Guyatt, H. L. & Bundy, D. A. P. (1991). Estimating prevalence of community morbidity due to intestinal helminths: prevalence of infection as an indicator of the prevalence of disease. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85, 778–82.
Guyatt, H. L., Bundy, D. A. P., Medley, G. F. & Grenfell, B. T. (1990). The relationship between the frequency distribution of Ascaris lumbricoides and the prevalence and intensity of infection in human communities. Parasitology 101, 139–43.
Holland, C. V., Crompton, D. W. T., Taren, D. L., Nesheim, M. C., Sanjur, D., Barbeau, I. & Tucker, K. (1987). Ascaris lumbricoides infection in pre-school children from Chiriqui Province, Panama. Parasitology 95, 615–22.
Lwambo, N. J. S., Bundy, D. A. P. & Medley, G. F. (1992). A new approach to morbidity risk assessment in hookworm endemic communities. Epidemiology and Infection 108, 469–81.
Manalang, C. (1928). Trichuriasis: relation between the number of ova per gram of formed stool and the number of female worms harboured by the host. Philippine Journal of Science 36, 1122.
May, R. M. (1977). Togetherness among schistosomes: its effects on the dynamics of the infection. Mathematical Biosciences 35, 301–43.
Mello, D. A. (1974). A note on egg production of Ascaris lumbricoides. Journal of Parasitology 60, 380–1.
Moosbrugger, H. (1891). Ueber Erkrankung an Trichocephalus dispar. Medzinisches Korrespondenzblatt des Württembergischen ärztlichen Landesvereins Stuttgart 61, 227–30.
Morishhita, K. (1972). Studies on epidemiological aspects of ascariasis in Japan and basic knowledge concerning its control. Progress of Medical Parasitology in Japan 4, 1153.
Pawlowski, Z. S. & Arfaa, F. (1984). Ascariasis. In Tropical and Geographical Medicine (ed. Warren, K. S. & Mahmoud, A. A. F.), pp. 347358. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Pritchard, D. I., Quinnell, R. J., Slater, A. F. G., McKean, P. G., Dale, D. D. S., Raiko, A. & Keymer, A. E. (1990). The epidemiological significance of acquired immunity to Necator americanus: humoral responses to parasite collagen and excretory-secretory antigens. Parasitology 100, 317–26.
Seo, B. S., Cho, S. Y. & Chai, J. Y. (1979). Frequency distribution of Ascaris lumbricoides in rural Koreans with special reference on the effect of changing endemicity. Korean Journal of Parasitology 17, 105–13.
Sinniah, B. (1982). Daily egg production of Ascaris lumbricoides: the distribution of eggs in the faeces and the variability of egg counts. Parasitology 84, 167–75.
Sinniah, B., Kan-Chua, S. P. & Subramaniam, K. (1983). Evaluating the reliability of egg counts in determining intensity of Ascaris infections. In Collected Papers on the Control of Soil-transmitted Helminthiases, Vol. II, pp. 510. Tokyo: Asian Parasite Control Organisation.
Yokogawa, S. & Wakejima, T. (1932). On faecal examination for parasites of schoolchildren of Formosa-Chinese parentage, especially medical and biological observation on Ascaris lumbricoides. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 31, 552–70; 654–87.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Estimation of intestinal nematode prevalence: influence of parasite mating patterns

  • H. L. Guyatt (a1) and D. A. P. Bundy (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.