Skip to main content Accessibility help

Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda): uptake of L-amino acids by secondary hydatid cysts

  • S. A. Jeffs (a1) and C. Arme (a1)


The uptake of cycloleucine, L-proline, L-alanine and L-threonine by secondary hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus (U.K. horse strain 3–8 mm in diameter, derived from Balb/c mice infected 300–400 days previously) occurs by passive diffusion into the cyst wall (laminated layer plus germinal layer) and by mediated mechanisms into the fluid-filled interior. The maximal concentrations of these compounds are achieved after incubation for 2 h in vitro and approach those in vivo. Kt and Vmax values describing the uptake of these compounds are given. The flux rates for these compounds are extremely slow compared to those obtained with the protoscolex. A rationale for standardizing the experimental method for uptake studies with hydatid cysts is described.



Hide All
Bahr, J. M., Frayha, G. J. & Hajjar, J-J. (1979). Mechanism of cholesterol absorption by the hydatid cyst of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 62A, 485–90.
Benito, A. A. (1984). Hydatidosis of sheep. II. Levels of glucose, lipids and proteins in the hydatid liquid. Archivos de Zootecnia 33, 163–9.
Benito, A. A., Gomez, M. F. & Gaitan, U. A. (1983). Hydatidosis of sheep. I. The pH, and the levels of sodium and potassium in the hydatid liquid. Archivos de Zootecnia 32, 279–84.
Bridges, J. F., Arme, C. & Richards, K. S. (1984). Echinococcus granulosus: permeability studies on the hydatid cyst. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 78, 205.
Chordi, A. & Kagan, I. (1965). Identification and characterization of antigenic component of sheep hydatid fluid by immunoelectrophoresis. Journal of Parasitology 51, 6371.
Coltorti, E. A. & Varela-Diaz, V. M. (1972). IgG levels and host specificity in hydatid cyst fluid. Journal of Parasitology 58, 753–6.
Eckert, J. (1986). Prospects for treatment of the metacestode stage of Echinococcus. In Biology of Echinococcus and Hydatid Disease (ed. Thompson, R. C. A.), pp. 250–84. London: George Allen & Unwin.
Edwards, G. T. (1982). Host IgG in equine hydatid cyst fluid. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 76, 485–7.
Frayha, G. J. & Haddad, R. (1980). Comparative chemical composition of protoscolices and hydatid cyst fluid of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda). International Journal for Parasitology 10, 359–64.
Hustead, S. T. & Williams, J. F. (1977). Permeability studies on taeniid metacestodes. I. Uptake of proteins by larval stages of Taenia taeniformis, T. crassiceps and Echinococcus granulosus. Journal of Parasitology 63, 314–21.
Jeffs, S. A. & Arme, C. (1985 a). Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda): uptake of cycloleucine by metacestodes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 81A, 495–9.
Jeffs, S. A. & Arme, C. (1985 b). Hymenolepis diminuta: characterization of the neutral amino acid transport loci of the metacestode. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 81A, 387–90.
Jeffs, S. A. & Arme, C. (1986 a). Echinococcus granulosus: absorption of cycloleucine and α-aminoisobutyric acid by protoscoleces. Parasitology 92, 153–63.
Jeffs, S. A. & Arme, C. (1986 b). Echinococcus granulosus: specificity of amino acid transport systems in protoscoleces. Parasitology 95, 71–8.
Kammerer, W. S. & Miller, K. L. (1981). Echinococcus granulosus: permeability of hydatid cysts to mebendazole in mice. International Journal for Parasitology 11, 183–5.
Krvavica, S., Martincic, T. & Asaj, R. (1959). Metabolism of amino acids in some parasites. II. Amino acids in the hydatid fluid and germinal layer of Echinococcus. Veterinarski Archiv 29, 314–21.
Lineweaver, H. & Burk, D. (1934). The determination of enzyme dissociation constants. Journal of the American Chemical Society 56, 658–66.
Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. & Randall, R. J. (1951). Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193, 265–75.
Luder, P. J., Witassek, F., Weigand, K., Eckert, J. & Bircher, J. (1985). Treatment of cystic echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus) with mebendazole: assessment of bound and free drug levels in cyst fluid and of parasite vitality in operative specimens. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 28, 279–85.
Lussier, P. E., Podesta, R. B. & Mettrick, D. F. (1979). Hymenolepis diminuta: Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components of neutral amino acid transport. Journal of Parasitology 65, 842–8.
Pappas, P. W. & Read, C. P. (1973). Permeability and membrane transport in the larva of Taenia crassiceps. Parasitology 66, 3342.
Pappas, P. W. & Read, C. P. (1975). Membrane transport in helminth parasites: a review. Experimental Parasitology 37, 469530.
Pappas, P. W., Uglem, G. L. & Read, C. P. (1973). Mechanisms and specificity of amino acid transport in Taenia crassiceps larvae (Cestoda). International Journal of Parasitology 3, 641–51.
Podesta, R. B., Evans, W. S. & Stallard, H. E. (1977). The effect of ouabain on tissue electrolyte concentrations and active nonelectrolyte transport across the epithelial membrane of Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma (Cestoda). Experimental Parasitology 43, 2538.
Read, C. P., Rothman, A. H. & Simmons, J. E. Jr (1963). Studies on membrane transport, with special reference to parasite-host integration. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 113, 154205.
Reisin, I. L. & de Fala, C. I. P. (1984). Membrane permeability of secondary hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Determination of the water diffusional and osmotic permeability components through a syncytial membrane. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 12, 101–16.
Reisin, I. L., Rabito, C. A., Rotunno, C. A. & Cereijido, M. (1977). The permeability of the membrane of experimental secondary cysts of Echinococcus granulosus to [14C]mebendazole. International Journal for Parasitology 7, 189–94.
Richards, K. S. (1984). Echinococcus granulosus equinus: the histochemistry of the laminated layer of the hydatid cyst. Folia Histochemica et Cytochemica 22, 21–3.
Richards, K. S., Arme, C. & Bridges, J. F. (1983). Echinococcus granulosus equinus: an ultrastructural study of murine tissue response to hydatid cysts. Parasitology 86, 407–17.
Richards, K. S., Arme, C. & Bridges, J. F. (1984). Echinococcus granulosus equinus: variation in the germinal layer of murine hydatids and evidence of autophagy. Parasitology 89, 3547.
Richards, K. S. & Rogan, M. T. (1986). Surface ultrastructure of a strobilate form of the horse strain Echinococcus granulosus cultured in a monophasic medium. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 80, 267–8.
Rotunno, C. A., Kammerer, W. S., Esandi, M. V. P. & Cereijido, M. (1974). Studies on the permeability to water, sodium, and chloride of the hydatid cyst of Echinococcus granulosus. Journal of Parasitology 60, 613–20.
Sanchez, A. F. & Sanchez, C. A. (1971). Estudio de algunas propiedades fisicas y componentes quinicas del liquido y pared germinativa de qistes hidatidicas de diversas especies y de diferente localizacion. Revista Iberica Parasitologia 31, 347–66.
Schwabe, C. W. (1959). Host-parasite relationships in echinococcosis. I. Observation on the permeability of the hydatid cyst wall. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 8, 22–8.
Schwabe, C. W., Koussa, M. & Accra, A. N. (1961). Host-parasite relationships in echinococcosis. V. Acetylcholinesterase and permeability regulation in the hydatid cyst wall. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 2, 161–72.
Smyth, J. D. (1976). Introduction to Animal Parasitology. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Smyth, J. D., Miller, H. J. & Hawkins, A. B. (1967). Further analysis of the factors controlling strobilization, differentiation and maturation of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro. Experimental Parasitology 21, 3141.
Woodtli, W., Bircher, J., Witassek, F., Eckert, J., Wuthrich, B. & Ammann, R. W. (1985). Effect of plasma mebendazole concentrations in the treatment of human echinococcosis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 34, 754–60.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed