Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cryptosporidium infections in suckler herd beef calves

  • C. BJÖRKMAN (a1), L. LINDSTRÖM (a1), C. OWESON (a1), H. AHOLA (a2), K. TROELL (a2) and C. AXÉN (a3)...

Summary

A study was carried out to investigate how common Cryptosporidium infections are in beef calves in Swedish suckler herds and to explore which species and subtypes that occur. We further aimed at identifying factors associated with shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in this type of calf management. The study was conducted in two regions in Sweden and included 30 herds. Faecal samples were collected from calves younger than 3 months. A brief clinical examination was done and a questionnaire was used to collect data on management routines. Faeces were cleaned and concentrated and oocysts identified by epifuorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium positive samples were analyzed at the 18S rRNA and GP60 genes to determine species and Cryptosporidium parvum subtype, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with infection. Oocysts were detected in 122 (36·7%) calves from 29 (97%) herds, at 400 to 2·4 × 107 OPG. The youngest positive calves were only 1 and 2 days old. There was no association between age and Cryptosporidium infection. Cryptosporidium bovis, Cryptosporidium ryanae, C. parvum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum were identified, with C. bovis being the major species. Two C. parvum subtypes, IIaA16G1R1 and IIdA27G1 were identified. Routines for cleaning calf pens and number of cows in calving pens were associated with infection.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cryptosporidium infections in suckler herd beef calves
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cryptosporidium infections in suckler herd beef calves
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cryptosporidium infections in suckler herd beef calves
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7054, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Email: camilla.bjorkman@slu.se

References

Hide All
Blanchard, P. C. (2012). Diagnostics of dairy and beef cattle diarrhea. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 28, 443464.
Broglia, A., Reckinger, S., Cacció, S. M. and Nöckler, K. (2008). Distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum subtypes in calves in Germany. Veterinary Parasitology 154, 813.
Brook, E. J., Anthony Hart, C., French, N. P. and Christley, R. M. (2009). Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium subtypes in cattle in England. Veterinary Journal 179, 378382.
Cacciò, S. M. and Widmer, G. (ed.) (2014). Cryptosporidium: Parasite and Disease, Springer-Verlag, Wien.
Chalmers, R. M., Ferguson, C., Caccio, S., Gasser, R. B., Abs El-Osta, Y. G., Heijnen, L., Xiao, L., Elwin, K., Hadfield, S., Sinclair, M. and Stevens, M. (2005). Direct comparison of selected methods for genetic categorisation of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis species. International Journal for Parasitology 35, 397410.
Dixon, B., Parrington, L., Cook, A., Pintar, K., Pollari, F., Kelton, D. and Farber, J. (2011). The potential for zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from beef and dairy cattle in Ontario, Canada. Veterinary Parasitology 175, 2026.
Fayer, R., Santín, M. and Macarisin, D. (2010). Cryptosporidium ubiquitum n. sp. in animals and humans. Veterinary Parasitology 172, 2332.
Follet, J., Guyo, t. K., Leruste, H., Follet-Dumoulin, A., Hammouma-Ghelboun, O., Certad, G., Dei-Cas, E. and Halama, P. (2011). Cryptosporidium infection in a veal calf cohort in France: molecular characterization of species in a longitudinal study. Veterinary Research 42, 116.
Geurden, T., Goma, F. Y., Siwila, J., Phiri, I. G. K., Mwanza, A. M., Gabriel, S., Claerebout, E. and Vercruysse, J. (2006). Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium in three cattle husbandry systems in Zambia. Veterinary Parasitology 138, 217222.
Geurden, T., Berkvens, D., Martnens, C., Casaert, S., Vercruysse, J. and Claerebout, E. (2007). Molecular epidemiology with subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium in calves in Belgium. Parasitology 134, 19811987.
Imre, K., Lobo, L. M., Matos, O., Popescu, C., Genchi, C. and Dărăbuş, G. (2011). Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates from pre-weaned calves in Romania: Is there an actual risk of zoonotic infections? Veterinary Parasitology 181, 321324.
Imre, K., Luca, C., Costache, M., Sala, C., Morar, A., Morariu, S., Ilie, M. S., Imre, M. and Dărăbuş, G. (2013). Zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum in Romanian newborn lambs (Ovis aries). Veterinary Parasitology 191, 119122.
Insulander, M., Silverlås, C., Lebbad, M., Karlsson, L., Mattsson, J. G. and Svenungsson, B. (2013). Molecular epidemiology and clinical manifestations of human cryptosporidiosis in Sweden. Epidemiology & Infection 141, 10091020.
Kinross, P., Beser, J., Troell, K., Silverlås, C., Björkman, C., Lebbad, M., Winiecka-Krusnell, J., Lindh, J. and Löfdahl, M. (2015). Cryptosporidium parvum infections in a cohort of veterinary students in Sweden. Epidemiology & Infection, In press, doi:10.1017/S0950268814003318.
Kváč, M., Sak, B., Hanzlíková, D., Kotilová, J. and Květoňová, D. (2009). Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from pigs at slaughterhouses in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Parasitology Research 104, 425428.
Kváč, M., Hromadová, N., Květoňová, D., Rost, M. and Sak, B. (2011). Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned dairy calves in the Czech Republic: Absence of C. ryanae and management-associated distribution of C. andersoni, C. bovis and C. parvum subtypes. Veterinary Parasitology 177, 378382.
Langkjaer, R. B., Vigre, H., Enemark, H. L. and Maddox-Hyttel, C. (2007). Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark. Parasitology 134, 339350.
Lassen, B., Ståhl, M. and Enemark, H. L. (2014). Cryptosporidiosis–an occupational risk and a disregarded disease in Estonia. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 56, 13.
Li, N., Xiao, L., Alderisio, K., Elwin, K., Cebelinski, E., Chalmers, R., Santin, M., Fayer, R., Kvac, M., Ryan, U., Sak, B., Stanko, M., Guo, Y., Wang, L., Zhang, L., Cai, J., Roellig, D. and Feng, Y. (2014). Subtyping Cryptosporidium ubiquitum,a zoonotic pathogen emerging in humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases 20, 217224.
Maddox-Hyttel, C., Langkjaer, R. B., Enemark, H. L. and Vigre, H. (2006). Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs – occurrence and management associated risk factors. Veterinary Parasitology 141, 4859.
Misic, Z. and Abe, N. (2007). Subtype analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from calves on farms around Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, using the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene sequences. Parasitology 134, 351358.
O'Handley, R. M., Cockwill, C., McAllister, T. A., Jelinski, M., Morck, D. W. and Olson, M. E. (1999). Duration of naturally acquired giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis in dairy calves and their association with diarrhea. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association 214, 391396.
Peng, M. M., Wilson, M. L., Holland, R. E., Meshnick, S. R., Lal, A. A. and Xiao, L. (2003). Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in Michigan: implications for understanding the transmission dynamics. Parasitology Research 90, 175180.
Plutzer, J. and Karanis, P. (2007). Genotype and subtype analyses of Cryptosporidium isolates from cattle in Hungary. Veterinary Parasitology 146, 357362.
Robertson, L. J., Björkman, C., Axén, C. and Fayer, R. (2014). Cryptosporidiosis in farmed animals. In Cryptosporidium: Parasite and Disease (ed. Caccio, S. M. and Widmer, G.), pp. 149235. Springer-Verlag, Wien.
Santín, M., Trout, J. M. and Fayer, R. (2008). A longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle from birth to 2 years of age. Veterinary Parasitology 155, 1523.
Silva, S. O., Richtzenhain, L. J., Barros, I. N., Gomesa, A. M. M. C., Silva, A. V., Kozerski, N. D., de Araújo Ceranto, J. B., Keid, L. B. and Soares, R. M. (2013). A new set of primers directed to 18S rRNA gene for molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. and their performance in the detection and differentiation of oocysts shed by synanthropic rodents. Experimental Parasitology 135, 551557.
Silverlås, C. and Blanco-Penedo, I. (2013). Cryptosporidium spp. in calves and cows from organic and conventional dairy herds. Infection and Immunity 141, 529539.
Silverlås, C., Emanuelson, U., de Verdier, K. and Björkman, C. (2009). Prevalence and associated management factors of Cryptosporidium shedding in 50 Swedish dairy herds. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 90, 242253.
Silverlås, C., de Verdier, K., Emanuelson, U., Mattsson, J. G. and Björkman, C. (2010 a). Cryptosporidium infection in herds with and without calf diarrhoeal problems. Parasitology Research 107, 14351444.
Silverlås, C., Näslund, K., Björkman, C. and Mattsson, J. G. (2010 b). Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates from Swedish dairy cattle in relation to age, diarrhoea and region. Veterinary Parasitology 169, 289295.
Silverlås, C., Bosaeus-Reineck, H., Näslund, K. and Björkman, C. (2013). Is there a need for improved Cryptosporidium diagnostics in Swedish calves? International Journal for Parasitology 43, 155161.
Soba, B. and Logar, J. (2008). Genetic classification of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans and calves in Slovenia. Parasitology 135, 12631270.
Statistics Sweden. (2013). Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics 2013. Statistics Sweden, Agriculture Statistics Unit, Örebro.
Trotz-Williams, L. A., Martin, D. S., Gatei, W., Cama, V., Peregrine, A. S., Martin, S. W., Nydam, D. V., Jamieson, F. and Xiao, L. (2006). Genotype and subtype analyses of Cryptosporidium isolates from dairy calves and humans in Ontario. Parasitology Research 99, 346352.
Wielinga, P. R., de Vries, A., van der Goot, T. H., Mank, T., Mars, M. H., Kortbeek, L. M. and van der Giessen, J. W. B. (2008). Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and cattle in The Netherlands. International Journal for Parasitology 38, 809817.
Xiao, L., Escalante, L., Yang, C., Sulaiman, I., Escalante, A. A., Montali, R. J., Fayer, R. and Lal, A. A. (1999). Phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium parasites based on the small-subunit rRNA gene locus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 15781583.
Xiao, L., Alderisio, K., Limor, J., Royer, M. and Lal, A. F. (2000). Identification of species and sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts in storm waters with a small-subunit rRNA-based diagnostic and genotyping tool. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 54925498.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed