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Concluding remarks: variation and polymorphism in parasite phenotype – implications for the selection of potential intervention strategies

  • R. E. Sinden (a1)


Work reported at this meeting has described the exploitation of variation in parasite phenotype in disciplines ranging from molecular taxonomy and drug development, through the understanding of host-parasite interaction, to the evolution of parasite populations and determining the potential efficacy of vaccine programmes.



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Anderson, R. M., May, R. M. & Gupta, S. (1989). Nonlinear phenomena in host-parasite interactions. Parasitology 99, S59–S79
Arnot, D. E., Barnwell, J. W. & Stewart, M. J. (1988). Does bias gene conversion influence polymorphism in the circumsporozoite protein-encoding gene of Plasmodium vivax? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 85, 8102–6.
Barker, D. C. (1989). Molecular approaches to DNA diagnosis. Parasitology 99, S125–S146.
Bianco, A. E. & Maizels, R. M. (1989). Parasite development and adaptive specialization. Parasitology 99, S113–S123
Carter, R. & Chen, D. H. (1976). Malaria transmission blocked by immunisation with gametes of the malaria parasite. Nature, London 263, 5760.
Dayhoff, M. O. (1972). Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, vol. 5. National Biomedical Research Council, Washington, D.C.
Enea, V., Galinski, M., Schmidt, E., Gwadz, R. W. & Nussenzweig, R. S. (1986). Evolutionary profile of the circumsporozoite gene of the Plasmodium cynomolgi complex. Journal of Molecular Biology 188, 721–6.
Fairlamb, A. H. (1989). Novel biochemical pathways in parasitic protozoa. Parasitology 99, S93–S112
Godson, G. N., Ellis, J., Lupski, J. R., Ozaki, L. S. & Svec, P. (1984). Structure and organization of genes for sporozoite surface antigens. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 307, 129–39.
Good, M. F., Berzofsky, J. A. & Miller, L. H. (1988). The T cell response to the malaria circumsporozoite protein: an immunological approach to vaccine development. Annual Review of Immunology 6, 663–88.
Harte, P. G., Rogers, N. & Targett, G. A. T. (1985). Vaccination with purified microgamete antigens prevents transmission of rodent malaria. Nature, London 316, 258–9.
Holder, A. A. (1988). The precursor to the major merozoite surface antigens: structure and role in immunity. Progress in Allergy 41, 7297.
Kumar, N. & Carter, R. (1984). Biosynthesis of the target antigens of antibodies blocking transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 13, 333–42.
Kumar, N. & Carter, R. (1985). Biosynthesis of two stage-specific membrane proteins during transformation of Plasmodium gallinaceum zygotes into ookinetes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 14, 127–39.
McCutchan, T. F., De La Cruz, V. F., Good, M. F. & Wellems, T. E. (1988). Antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum. Progress in Allergy 41, 173–92.
Mendis, K. N., Peiris, J. S. M., Premawansa, S., Undagama, P. V. & Munesinghe, Y. (1987). Immune modulation of parasite transmission in Plasmodium vivax malaria. Anti-gamete antibodies can both block and enhance transmission. UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology (ed. Agabian, N., Goodman, H. & Nogueira, N.), vol. 42, pp. 417–26. Molecular Strategies of Parasite Invasion. New York: Alan Liss.
Mendis, K. N. & Targett, G. A. T. (1979). Immunization against gametes and asexual stages of rodent malaria parasites. Nature, London 277, 389–91.
Murray, M., Hirumi, H. & Moloo, S. K. (1985). Suppression of Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei infection rates in tsetse flies maintained on goats immunized with uncoated forms of trypanosomes grown in vitro. Parasitology 91, 5366.
Nijhout, M. M. & Carter, R. (1978). Gamete development in malarial parasites: bicarbonate-dependent stimulation by pH in vitro. Parasitology 76, 3953.
Parkhouse, R. M. E. & Harrison, L. J. S. (1989). Antigens of parasitic helminths in diagnosis, protection and pathology. Parasitology 99, S5–S19.
Ponnudurai, T., Lensen, A. H. W., Van Gemert, G. J. A., Bensink, M. P. E., Bolmer, M. & Meuwissen, J. H. E. T. (1989). Infectivity of cultured Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes to mosquitoes. Parasitology 98, 165–73.
Sinden, R. E. & Croll, N. A. (1975). Cytology and kinetics of microgametogenesis and fertilization in Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. Parasitology 70, 5365.
Smyth, D. & Davies, Z. (1974). The occurrence of physiological strains of Echinococcus granulosus demonstrated by in vitro culture of protoscolesces from sheep and horse. International Journal for Parasitology 4, 443–5.
Vaughan, J. A., Do Rosario, V., Leland, P., Adjepong, A., Light, J., Woollett, G. R., Hollingdale, M. R. & Azad, A. F. (1988). Plasmodium falciparum: Ingested anti-sporozoite antibodies affect sporogony in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Experimental Parasitology 66, 171–82.
Vermeulen, A. N., Ponnudurai, T., Beckers, P. J. A., Verhave, J. P., Smits, M. A. & Meuwissen, J. H. E. T. (1985). Sequential expression of antigens on sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum accessible to transmission-blocking antibodies. Journal of Experimental Medicine 162, 1460–5.
Vickerman, K. (1989). Trypanosome sociology and antigenic variation. Parasitology 99, S37–S47.
Wakelin, D. (1989). Nature and nurture: overcoming constraints on immunity. Parasitology 99, S21–S35.
Walliker, D. (1989). Implications of genetic exchange in the study of protozoan infections. Parasitology 99, S49–S58.
Warhurst, D. A., Homewood, C. A., Peters, W. A. & Baggaley, V. C. (1972). Pigment changes in Plasmodium berghei as indicators of activity and mode of action of antimalarial drugs. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society, Washington 39, 271–8.
Winger, L. A., Smith, J. E., Nicholas, J., Carter, H. E., Tirawanchai, N. & Sinden, R. E. (1988). Ookinete antigens of Plasmodium berghei: appearance on the zygote of an Mr 21 K surface determinant identified by transmission blocking monoclonal antibodies. Parasite Immunology 10, 193207.

Concluding remarks: variation and polymorphism in parasite phenotype – implications for the selection of potential intervention strategies

  • R. E. Sinden (a1)


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