An endemic transmission cycle of Babesia microti was discovered in Colorado in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. B. microti were found by PCR in 4 of 25 Ixodes spinipalpis tick pools tested (a 3·2% minimum infection rate) and in 87% (13 of 15) of Microtus ochrogaster (the prairie vole) spleen and blood samples. Using naturally infected I. spinipalpis collected from wild-caught M. ochrogaster as vectors, B. microti and Borrelia bissettii were successfully transmitted to laboratory-born M. ochrogaster. Neither I. spinipalpis, nor M. ochrogaster (the prairie vole) have been previously reported as a vector or a reservoir host of B. microti. Unlike the east coast of the United States where Peromyscus leucopus is an important reservoir for B. microti, evidence for Peromyscus spp. (neither P. maniculatus nor P. difficilis) as B. microti reservoirs was not found in this study.