Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Article contents

Elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Iran: past history and the current situation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 June 2016

SHAHRAM KHADEMVATAN
Affiliation:
Health Research Institute, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology & Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
SHOKROLLAH SALMANZADEH
Affiliation:
Health Research Institute, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
MASOUD FOROUTAN-RAD
Affiliation:
Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
MOHAMMAD GHOMESHI
Affiliation:
CDC Department, Deputy of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Summary

In recent years, through a national programme for schistosomiasis control, this infection has been eliminated from Iran. The aim of this study was to report the process of significant decrease of urogenital schistosomiasis in southwestern Iran. During national programme surveillance for urogenital schistosomiasis control which was implemented by Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of Khuzestan province from 1975 to 2013, more than 1·3 million urine samples were taken from inhabitants of high risk foci. All urine samples were gathered between 10:00 a.m and 02:00 p.m and, after centrifuging, specimens were tested under optical microscope in order to detect Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 18 software. In this retrospective study significant reduction was seen in number of infections between 1975 and 2013. During the years 1975–1980, 1981–1990 and 1991–2000 there were 1582, 761 and 79 cases of S. haematobium, respectively. In 2001 only one case was reported from Ahvaz and indeed this was the last case of urogenital schistosomiasis in Khuzestan and of course, in Iran. Prevalence from 1·064% between 1975 and 1980 slumped to 0% in 2012–2013. During several projects for surveillance of urogenital schistosomiasis, selective population chemotherapy, snail control, population education, environmental improvement, etc were carried out throughout the surveillance period. According to elimination of S. haematobium in Khuzestan province, the only endemic region of Iran, control of disease, especially the campaign with intermediate host snails should be continued. Iran can be a successful model for countries suffering from this disease.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Al Ghahtani, A. G. and Amin, M. A. (2005). Progress achieved in the elimination of schistosomiasis from the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 99, 483490.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Amarir, F., El Mansouri, B., Fellah, H., Sebti, F., Mohammed, L., Handali, S., Wilkins, P., El Idrissi, A. L., Sadak, A. and Rhajaoui, M. (2011). National serologic survey of Haematobium schistosomiasis in Morocco: evidence for elimination. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 1519.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arfaa, F., Bijan, H. and Farahmandian, I. (1967). Present status of urinary bilharziasis in Iran. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 61, 358367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chidozie, E. U. and Daniyan, S. Y. (2008). Urinary schistosomiasis epidemiological survey of urinary schistosomiasis among children in selected schools: a preliminary study in Minna, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 7, 27732776.Google Scholar
Chomba, C. and Mutale, S. (2014). Factors characterising high prevalence rates of urinary schistosomiasis in Mufumbwe district, north western province of Zambia. Global Institute for Research & Education 3, 8695.Google Scholar
Chu, K. Y., Massoud, J. and Arfaa, F. (1968). Distribution and ecology of Bulinus truncatus in Khuzestan, Iran. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 39, 607637.Google ScholarPubMed
Cunin, P., Tchuem Tchuente, L. A., Poste, B., Djibrilla, K. and Martin, P. M. (2003). Interactions between Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in humans in north Cameroon. Tropical Medicine & International Health 8, 11101117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dhunputh, J. (1994). Progress in the control of schistosomiasis in Mauritius. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88, 507509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
EMRO/WHO (2007). Inter-Country Meeting on Strategies to Eliminate Schistosomiasis from the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Muscat, Oman.Google Scholar
Fenwick, A., Webster, J. P., Bosque-Oliva, E., Blair, L., Fleming, F. M., Zhang, Y., Garba, A., Stothard, J. R., Gabrielli, A. F., Clements, A. C., Kabatereine, N. B., Toure, S., Dembele, R., Nyandindi, U., Mwansa, J. and Koukounari, A. (2009). The schistosomiasis control initiative (SCI): rationale, development and implementation from 2002–2008. Parasitology 136, 17191730.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gholamreza, M., Jafar, M., Allahbedasht, M., Nikkhooy, A., Mohammad, K. A. and Rokni, M. B. (2008). Survey of urinary schistosomiasis in Iran. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 24, 857860.Google Scholar
Hamidinia, D., Maraghi, S., Azimi, F., Ai, A. and Shirian, S. (2014). The role of climate on prevalence or eradication of vesical schistosomiasis in Khuzestan Province of Iran. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 13. doi: 10.1007/s12639-014-0515-6.Google ScholarPubMed
Ismail, H. A., Hong, S. T., Babiker, A. T., Hassan, R. M., Sulaiman, M. A., Jeong, H. G., Kong, W. H., Lee, S. H., Cho, H. I., Nam, H. S., Oh, C. H. and Lee, Y. H. (2014). Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis among school children in the White Nile River basin, Sudan. Parasites & Vectors, 7, 478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kasai, T., Nakatani, H., Takeuchi, T. and Crump, A. (2007). Research and control of parasitic diseases in Japan: current position and future perspectives. Trends in Parasitology 23, 230235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ketabchi, A. and Moshtaghi-Kashanian, G. (2012). Urinary schistosomiasis with simultaneous bladder squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma. Iranian Journal of Parasitology 7, 9698.Google ScholarPubMed
Knopp, S., Person, B., Ame, S. M., Mohammed, K. A., Ali, S. M., Khamis, I. S., Rabone, M., Allan, F., Gouvras, A., Blair, L., Fenwick, A., Utzinger, J. and Rollinson, D. (2013). Elimination of schistosomiasis transmission in Zanzibar: baseline findings before the onset of a randomized intervention trial. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7, e2474.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maraghi, S., Ranjbar, N. and Haddad, M. H. (2004). Schisto-granuloma of the fallopian tube from a low-endemic area in Iran. Acta Tropica 92, 8990.Google ScholarPubMed
Massoud, J., Arfaa, F., Farahmandian, I., Ardalan, A. and Mansoorian, A. (1982). Progress in the national schistosomiasis control programme of Iran. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 60, 577582.Google ScholarPubMed
McCullough, F. S., Gayral, P., Duncan, J. and Christie, J. D. (1980). Molluscicides in schistosomiasis control. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 58, 681689.Google ScholarPubMed
Mehrdad, R. (2009). Health system in Iran. Japan Medical Association Journal 52, 6973.Google Scholar
Meurs, L., Mbow, M., Vereecken, K., Menten, J., Mboup, S. and Polman, K. (2012). Epidemiology of mixed Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infections in northern Senegal. International Journal for Parasitology 42, 305311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meurs, L., Brienen, E., Mbow, M., Ochola, E. A., Mboup, S., Karanja, D. M., Secor, W. E., Polman, K. and van Lieshout, L. (2015). Is PCR the next reference standard for the diagnosis of schistosoma in stool? A comparison with microscopy in Senegal and Kenya. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9, e0003959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mo, A. X., Agosti, J. M., Walson, J. L., Hall, B. F. and Gordon, L. (2014). Schistosomiasis elimination strategies and potential role of a vaccine in achieving global health goals. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90, 5460.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mombeni, H. and Kheradmand, A. (2005). Schistosoma haematobium control in Khoozestan province in Iran: prosperities and failures. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran 19, 1922.Google Scholar
Mowlavi, G., Mansoorian, A., Mahmoodi, M., Pourshojaei, R. and Salehi, M. (2009). Identification of freshwater snails in cane-sugar fields in the northern part of Khuzestan Province from a public health perspective. Journal of School of Public Health & Institute of Public Health Research 7, 6976.Google Scholar
Niaz, S., Tanveer, A. and Qureshi, A. (2010). Prevalence of humans schistosomiasis in different areas of Punjab Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Science 62, 160162.Google Scholar
Othman, A. A. and Soliman, R. H. (2015). Schistosomiasis in Egypt: a never-ending story?. Acta Tropica 148, 179190.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rahbar, M. (2009). Primary health care in Islamic Republic of Iran. Series of health report in Islamic Republic of Iran, 2nd Edn. Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Deputy for Health, Tehran, Iran.Google Scholar
Rashidian, A., Khosravi, A., Khabiri, R., Khodayari-Moez, E., Elahi, E., Arab, M. and Radaie, Z. (2012). Islamic Republic of Iran's multiple indicator demographic and health survey (IrMIDHS) 2010, Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Tehran.Google Scholar
Rollinson, D., Knopp, S., Levitz, S., Stothard, J. R., Tchuente, L. A. T., Garba, A., Mohammed, K. A., Schur, N., Person, B., Colley, D. G. and Utzinger, J. (2013). Time to set the agenda for schistosomiasis elimination. Acta Tropica 128, 423440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rudge, J. W., Stothard, J. R., Basanez, M. G., Mgeni, A. F., Khamis, I. S., Khamis, A. N. and Rollinson, D. (2008). Micro-epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis in Zanzibar: local risk factors associated with distribution of infections among schoolchildren and relevance for control. Acta Tropica 105, 4554.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sady, H., Al-Mekhlafi, H. M., Mahdy, M. A., Lim, Y. A., Mahmud, R. and Surin, J. (2013). Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 7, e2377.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salmanzadeh, S., Foroutan-Rad, M., Khademvatan, S., Moogahi, S. and Bigdeli, S. (2015). Significant decline of malaria incidence in southwest of Iran (2001–2014). Journal of Tropical Medicine 2015, 523767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shadpour, K. (2000). Primary health care networks in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 6, 822825.Google ScholarPubMed
Singh, K. and Muddasiru, D. (2014). Epidemiology of schistosomiasis in school aged children in some riverine areas of Sokoto, Nigeria. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 8, 197201.Google Scholar
Utzinger, J., Becker, S. L., van Lieshout, L., Van Dam, G. J. and Knopp, S. (2015). New diagnostic tools in schistosomiasis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 21, 529542.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
WHO (2013). Schistosomiasis: progress report 2001–2011, strategic plan 2012–2020.Google Scholar
Woolhouse, M. E., Etard, J. F., Dietz, K., Ndhlovu, P. D. and Chandiwana, S. K. (1998). Heterogeneities in schistosome transmission dynamics and control. Parasitology 117 (Pt 5), 475482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 92 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 26th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-898fc554b-z76t5 Total loading time: 0.357 Render date: 2021-01-26T06:05:43.855Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Iran: past history and the current situation
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Iran: past history and the current situation
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Iran: past history and the current situation
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *