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Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting TRAF6 signalling in macrophages

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 March 2021

Ke Lin
Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Di Zhou
Medical Laboratory, the First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Min Li
Nursing School of Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Jin Meng
Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Feiming He
Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Xiaofeng Yang
Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Dan Dong
Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Xian Wang
Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Xiangwei Wu
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Xueling Chen*
Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Jun Hou*
Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China
Authors for correspondence: Xueling Chen, E-mail:; Jun Hou, E-mail:
Authors for correspondence: Xueling Chen, E-mail:; Jun Hou, E-mail:


Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato has complex defence mechanisms that protect it from the anti-parasitic immune response for long periods. Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (EgCF) is involved in the immune escape. Nevertheless, whether and how EgCF modulates the inflammatory response in macrophages remains poorly understood. Here, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that EgCF could markedly attenuate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors including tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-6 but increase the expression of IL-10 at mRNA and protein levels in mouse peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells. Mechanically, western blotting and immunofluorescence assay showed that EgCF abolished the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and ERK1/2 signalling pathways by LPS stimulation in mouse macrophages. EgCF's anti-inflammatory role was at least partly contributed by promoting proteasomal degradation of the critical adaptor TRAF6. Moreover, the EgCF-promoted anti-inflammatory response and TRAF6 proteasomal degradation were conserved in human THP-1 macrophages. These findings collectively reveal a novel mechanism by which EgCF suppresses inflammatory responses by inhibiting TRAF6 and the downstream activation of NF-κB and MAPK signalling in both human and mouse macrophages, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the E. granulosus-induced immune evasion.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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These authors contributed equally to this study.


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