Ager, D. V. 1967. Brachiopod palaeoecology. Earth-Science Reviews 3:157–179.
Anderson, P. S. L. 2009. Biomechanics, functional patterns, and disparity in Late Devonian arthrodires. Paleobiology 35:321–342.
Anderson, P. S. L., Friedman, M., Brazeau, M. D., and Rayfield, E. J.. 2011. Initial radiation of jaws demonstrated stability despite faunal and environmental change. Nature 476:206–209.
Baeza-Carratalá, J. F., Manceñido, M. O., and Joral, F. García. 2016. Cisnerospira (Brachiopoda, Spiriferinida), an atypical Early Jurassic spire bearer from the Subbetic Zone (SE Spain) and its significance. Journal of Paleontology 90:1081–1099.
Bapst, D. W., Bullock, P. C., Melchin, M. J., Sheets, H. D., and Mitchell, C. E.. 2012. Graptoloid diversity and disparity became decoupled during the Ordovician mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109:3428–3433.
Brazeau, M. D. 2011. Problematic character coding methods in morphology and their effects. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 104:489–498.
Campbell, J. D. 1968. Rastelligera (Brachiopoda) of the Upper Triassic of New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand (Geology) 6:23–37.
Carlson, S. J. 1991. A phylogenetic perspective on articulate brachiopod diversity and the Permo-Triassic extinction. Pp. 119–142in Dudley, E. C., ed. The unity of evolutionary biology, proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology. Dioscorides Press, Portland, Ore.
Carlson, S. J. 2016. The evolution of Brachiopoda. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 44:409–438.
Carlson, S. J., and Fitzgerald, P. C.. 2008. Sampling taxa, estimating phylogeny and inferring macroevolution: an example from Devonian terebratulide brachiopods. Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 98:311–325.
Carter, J. L., and Johnson, J. G.. 2006. Order Spiriferinida. Pp. 1877–1937in Brachiopoda 5, Rhynchonelliformea (part). Part H of Kaesler, R. L., ed. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo., and University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Carter, J. L., Johnson, J. G., Gourvennec, R., and Hou, H. F.. 1994. A revised classification of the spiriferid brachiopods. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 63:327–374.
Chen, Z. Q., and Benton, M. J.. 2012. The timing and pattern of biotic recovery following the end-Permian mass extinction. Nature Geoscience 5:375–383.
Chen, Z. Q., Shi, G. R., and Kaiho, K.. 2002. A new genus of rhynchonellid brachiopod from the lower Triassic of South China and implications for timing the recovery of Brachiopoda after the end-Permian mass extinction. Palaeontology 45:149–164.
Chen, Z. Q., Campi, M. J., Shi, G. R., and Kaiho, K.. 2005a. Post-extinction brachiopod faunas from the Late Permian Wuchiapingian coal series of South China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50:343–363.
Chen, Z. Q., Kaiho, K., and George, A. D.. 2005b. Survival strategy of brachiopod fauna from the end-Permian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 224:232–269.
Chen, Z. Q., Kaiho, K., and George, A. D.. 2005c. Early Triassic recovery of the brachiopod faunas from the end-Permian mass extinction: a global review. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 224:270–290.
Chen, Z. Q., Kaiho, K., George, A. D., and Tong, J. N.. 2006a. Survival brachiopod faunas of the end-Permian mass extinction from the Southern Alps (Italy) and South China. Geological Magazine 143:301–327.
Chen, Z. Q., Shi, G. R., Yang, F. Q., Gao, Y. Q., Tong, J. N., and Peng, Y. Q.. 2006b. An ecologically mixed brachiopod fauna from Changhsingian deep-water basin of South China: consequence of end-Permian global warming. Lethaia 39:79–90.
Chen, Z. Q., Zhao, L. S., Wang, X. D., Luo, M., and Guo, Z.. 2018. Great Paleozoic–Mesozoic biotic turnings and paleontological education in China: a tribute to the achievements of Professor Zunyi Yang. Journal of Earth Science 29:721–732.
Ciampaglio, C. N. 2004. Measuring changes in articulate brachiopod morphology before and after the Permian mass extinction event: do developmental constraints limit morphological innovation? Evolution and Development 6:260–274.
Ciampaglio, C. N., Kemp, M., and McShea, D. W.. 2001. Detecting changes in morphospace occupation patterns in the fossil record: characterization and analysis of measures of disparity. Paleobiology 27:695–715.
Congreve, C. R., and Lamsdell, J. C.. 2016. Implied weighting and its utility in palaeontological datasets: a study using modelled phylogenetic matrices. Palaeontology 59:447–462.
Congreve, C. R., Krug, A. Z., and Patzkowsky, M. E.. 2015. Phylogenetic revision of the Strophomenida, a diverse and ecologically important Palaeozoic brachiopod order. Palaeontology 58:743–758.
Cooper, G. A. 1972. Homeomorphy in recent deep-sea brachiopods. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 11:1–25.
Cowen, R., and Rudwick, M. J. S.. 1970. Deltidial spines in the Triassic brachiopod Bittnerula. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 44:82–85.
Curry, G. B., and Brunton, C. H. C.. 2007. Stratigraphic distribution of brachiopods. Pp. 2901–3081in Brachiopoda 6, Supplement. Part H of Selden, P. A., ed. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo., and University of Kansas, Lawrence
Dagys, A. S. 1974. Triasovye brakhiopody (morfologia, sistema, filogeniia, stratigraficheskoe znachenie i biogeografiia. Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Sibirskoe Otdelenie, Institut Geologii i Geofiziki, Trudy 214:1–387.
Dagys, A. S. 1996. Remarks on the classification of punctate spiriferids. Pp. 91–93in Copper, P., and Jin, J. S., eds. Brachiopods. Proceedings of the 3rd International Brachiopod Congress, Sudbury, Ontario, September 1995. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Dick, D. G., and Maxwell, E. E.. 2015. The evolution and extinction of the ichthyosaurs from the perspective of quantitative ecospace modelling. Biology Letters 11:20150339.
Erwin, D. H. 2007. Disparity: morphological pattern and developmental context. Palaeontology 50:57–73.
Gourvennec, R., and Carter, J. L.. 2007. Spiriferida and Spirifernida. Pp. 2772–2796in Brachiopoda 6, Supplement. Part H of Selden, P. A., ed. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo., and University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Gower, J. C. 1971. A general coefficient of similarity and some of its properties. Biometrics 27:857–871.
Guo, Z., Chen, Z. Q., and Harper, D. A. T.. 2020. The Anisian (Middle Triassic) brachiopod fauna from Qingyan, Guizhou, south-western China. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 18:647–701.
Harper, D. A. T., and Moran, R.. 1997. Fossils explained 20: brachiopod life styles. Geology Today 13:235–238.
He, W. H., Zhang, K. X., Chen, Z. Q., Yan, J. X., Yang, T. L., Zhang, Y., Gu, S. Z., and Wu, S. B.. 2015. A new genus Liaous of early Anisian Stage (Middle Triassic) brachiopods from southwestern China: systematics, reassessment of classification of the Spiriferinioidea, community paleoecology, and paleoenvironmental implications. Journal of Paleontology 89:966–979.
Huang, Y. G., Chen, Z. Q., Wignall, P. B., and Zhao, L. S.. 2017. Latest Permian to Middle Triassic redox condition variations in ramp settings, South China: pyrite framboid evidence. Geological Society of America Bulletin 129:229–243.
Huang, Y. G., Chen, Z. Q., Algeo, T. J., Zhao, L. S., Baud, A., Bhat, G. M., Zhang, L., and Guo, Z.. 2019. Two-stage marine anoxia and biotic response during the Permian–Triassic transition in Kashmir, northern India: pyrite framboid evidence. Global and Planetary Change 172:124–139.
Ivanova, E. A. 1972. Osnovnyye zakonomernosti evolyutsii spiriferid (Brachiopoda). Paleontologicheskiĭ Zhurnal 1972:28–42.
Johnson, J. G., and Blodgett, R. B.. 1993. Russian Devonian brachiopod genera Cyrtinoides and Komiella in North America. Journal of Paleontology 67:952–958.
Korn, D., Hopkins, M. J., and Walton, S. A.. 2013. Extinction space: a method for the quantification and classification of changes in morphospace across extinction boundaries. Evolution 67:2795–2810.
Lamsdell, J. C., and Selden, P. A.. 2016. From success to persistence: identifying an evolutionary regime shift in the diverse Paleozoic aquatic arthropod group Eurypterida, driven by the Devonian biotic crisis. Evolution 71:95–110.
Lee, S., Shi, G. R., Park, H., and Tazawa, J.-I.. 2016. Antitropicality and convergent evolution: a case study of Permian neospiriferine brachiopods. Palaeontology 59:109–138.
Lee, S., Jung, J., and Shi, G. R.. 2018. A three-dimensional geometric morphometric study of the development of sulcus versus shell outline in Permian neospiriferine brachiopods. Lethaia 51:1–14.
Lloyd, G. T. 2016. Estimating morphological diversity and tempo with discrete character-taxon matrices: implementation, challenges, progress, and future directions. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 118:131–151.
Ogg, J. G., and Chen, Z. Q.. 2020. The Triassic period. Chap. 25in Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., Schmitz, M., and Ogg, G. M., eds. Geologic time scale 2020. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
R Core Team. 2018. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org.
Rong, J. Y., and Cocks, L. R. M.. 1994. True Strophomena and a revision of the classification and evolution of strophomenoid and “strophodontoid” brachiopods. Palaeontology 37:651–694.
Rudwick, M. J. S. 1970. Living and fossil brachiopods. Hutchinson University Library, London.
Ruta, M., Angielczyk, K. D., Fröbisch, J., and Benton, M. J.. 2013. Decoupling of morphological disparity and taxic diversity during the adaptive radiation of anomodont therapsids. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 280:20131071.
Schreiber, H. A., Bitner, M. A., and Carlson, S. J.. 2013. Morphological analysis of phylogenetic relationships among extant rhynchonellide brachiopods. Journal of Paleontology 87:550–569.
Sclafani, J. A., Congreve, C. R., Krug, A. Z., and Patzkowsky, M. E.. 2018. Effects of mass extinction and recovery dynamics on long-term evolutionary trends: a morphological study of Strophomenida (Brachiopoda) across the Late Ordovician mass extinction. Paleobiology 44:603–619.
Shen, S. Z., and Clapham, M. E.. 2009. Wuchiapingian (Lopingian, Late Permian) brachiopods from the Episkopi Formation of Hydra Island, Greece. Palaeontology 52:713–743.
S. Z., Shen, Jin, Y. G., Zhang, Y., and Weldon, E. A.. 2017. Permian brachiopod genera on type species of China. Pp. 651–881in Rong, J. Y., Jin, Y. G., Shen, S. Z., and Zhan, R. B., eds. Phanerozoic brachiopod genera of China. Science Press, Beijing.
Shiino, Y. 2010. Passive feeding in spiriferide brachiopods: an experimental approach using models of Devonian Paraspirifer and Cyrtospirifer. Lethaia 43:223–231.
Shiino, Y., and Angiolini, L.. 2014. Hydrodynamic advantages in the free-living spiriferinide brachiopod Pachycyrtella omanensis: functional insight into adaptation to high-energy flow environments. Lethaia 47:216–228.
Shiino, Y., and Kuwazuru, O.. 2010. Functional adaptation of spiriferide brachiopod morphology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23:1547–1557.
Shiino, Y., and Kuwazuru, O.. 2011. Theoretical approach to the functional optimisation of spiriferide brachiopod shell: optimum morphology of sulcus. Journal of Theoretical Biology 276:192–198.
Song, H. J., Wignall, P. B., Chu, D. L., Tong, J. N., Sun, Y. D., Song, H. Y., He, W. H., and Tian, L.. 2014. Anoxia/high temperature double whammy during the Permian–Triassic marine crisis and its aftermath. Scientific Reports 4:4132.
Stubbs, T. L., and Benton, M. J.. 2016. Ecomorphological diversifications of Mesozoic marine reptiles: the roles of ecological opportunity and extinction. Paleobiology 42:547–573.
Sun, D. L., Xu, G. R., and Qiao, L.. 2017. Triassic brachiopod genera on type species of China. Pp. 883–1011in Rong, J. Y., Jin, Y. G., Shen, S. Z., and Zhan, R. B., eds. Phanerozoic brachiopod genera of China. Science Press, Beijing.
Sun, Y. D., Joachimski, M. M., Wignall, P. B., Yan, C. B., Chen, Y. L., Jiang, H. S., Wang, L. N., and Lai, X. L.. 2012. Lethally hot temperatures during the Early Triassic greenhouse. Science 388:366–370.
Sun, Y. D., Orchard, M. J., Kocsis, Á. T., and Joachimski, M. M.. 2020. Carnian–Norian (Late Triassic) climate change: evidence from conodont oxygen isotope thermometry with implications for reef development and Wrangellian tectonics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 534:116082.
Swofford, D. L. 2003. PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), Version 4.0a166. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.
Trotter, J. A., Williams, I. S., Nicora, A., Mazza, M., and Rigo, M.. 2015. Long-term cycles of Triassic climate change: a new δ18O record from conodont apatite. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 415:165–174.
Vörös, A., Kocsis, Á. T., and Pálfy, J.. 2016. Demise of the last two spire-bearing brachiopod orders (Spiriferinida and Athyridida) at the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) extinction event. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 457:233–241.
Vörös, A., Kocsis, Á. T., and Pálfy, J.. 2019. Mass extinctions and clade extinctions in the history of brachiopods: brief review and a post-Paleozoic case study. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 125:711–724.
Waterhouse, J. B. 2016. On the evolution and classification of Spiriferida (Brachiopoda). Earthwise 14:1–434.
Williams, A., Brunton, C. H. C., and MacKinnon, D. I.. 1997. Morphology. Pp. 321–422in Brachiopoda 1, Introduction. Part H of Kaesler, R. L., ed. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colo., and University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Wu, H. T., Shi, G. R., and Sun, Y. L.. 2019. The latitudinal gradient of shell ornament—a case study from Changhsingian (Late Permian) brachiopods. Earth-Science Reviews 197:102904.
Xu, G. R., and Liu, G. C.. 1983. Systematic description; some problems in the research of Triassic brachiopods. Pp. 67–83in Yang, Z. Y., Xu, G. R., Wu, S. B., He, Y. L., Liu, G. C., and Yin, J. R., eds. Triassic of the south Qilian Mountains. Geological Publishing House, Beijing.
Yang, Z. Y., and Xu, G. R.. 1966. Triassic brachiopods of central Gueizhou (Kueichow) Province, China. China Industry Publishing House, Beijing.