Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Konservat-Lagerstätten: cause and classification

  • Peter A. Allison (a1)

Abstract

A review of the processes required for exceptional preservation of soft-bodied fossils demonstrates that anoxia does not significantly inhibit decay and emphasizes the importance of early diagenetic mineralization. Early diagenesis is the principal factor amongst the complex processes leading to soft-part preservation. The development of a particular preservational mineral is controlled by rate of burial, amount of organic detritus, and salinity. A new causative classification of soft-bodied fossil biotas is presented based upon fossil mineralogy and mineral paragenesis.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aldridge, R. J., Briggs, D. E. G., Clarkson, E. N. K., and Smith, M. P. 1986. The affinities of conodonts—new evidence from the Carboniferous of Edinburgh, Scotland. Lethaia 19:279291.
Aller, R. C. 1980. Diagenetic processes near the sediment-water interface of Long Island Sound. I. Decomposition and nutrient element geochemistry. Advances in Geophysics 22:237350.
Aller, R. C. and Yingst, J. Y. 1980. Relationships between microbial distributions and the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in surface sediments of Long Island Sound, USA. Marine Biology 56:2942.
Aller, R. C. and Mackin, J. E. 1984. Preservation of reactive organic matter in marine sediments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 70:260266.
Allison, P. A. 1986. Soft-bodied animals in the fossil record: the role of decay in fragmentation during transport. Geology 14:979981.
Allison, P. A. 1987. The Taphonomy of Soft-Bodied Fossil Biotas. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Bristol. Bristol, England. 198 pp.
Allison, P. A. 1988a. The decay and mineralization of protein-aceous macrofossils. Paleobiology 14:139154.
Allison, P. A. 1988b. Taphonomy and diagenesis of the London Clay (Eocene) biota. Palaeontology 31(4):10791100.
Allison, P. A. 1988c. Soft-bodied squids from the Jurassic Oxford Clay. Lethaia. 21(4):403410.
Baird, G. C. 1979. Lithology and fossil distribution, Francis Creek Shale in Northeastern Illinois. Pp. 4168. In Nitecki, M. H. (ed.), Mazon Creek Fossils. Academic Press; London.
Baird, G. C., Shabica, C. W., Anderson, J. L., and Richardson, E. S. Jr. 1985. The biota of a Pennsylvanian muddy coast: habitats within the Mazonian delta complex, northeastern Illinois. Journal of Paleontology 59:253281.
Baird, G. C. and Brett, C. E. 1986. Erosion on an anaerobic seafloor: significance of reworked pyrite deposits from the Devonian of New York State. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 57:157193.
Bartram, K. M., Jeram, A. J., and Selden, P. A. 1987. Arthropod cuticles in coal. Journal of the Geological Society of London 144:513518.
Bathurst, R. G. C. 1975. Carbonate Sediments and Their Diagenesis. Developments in Sedimentology 12. Elsevier; Amsterdam. 620 pp.
Benmore, R. A., Coleman, M. L., and McArthur, J. M. 1983. Origin of sedimentary francolite from its sulphur and carbon isotope composition. Nature 302:516518.
Bergström, J. 1989. Taphonomy of fossil Lagerstätten: Hünsruck Slate (Hünsruckschiefer). Pp. XXX–YYY. In Briggs, D. E. G., and Crowther, P. R. (eds.), Encyclopaedia of Palaeobiology. Blackwell Scientific Press; Oxford. In press.
Berner, R. A. 1968. Calcium carbonate concretions formed by the decomposition of organic matter. Science 159:195197.
Berner, R. A. 1970. Sedimentary pyrite formation. American Journal of Science 268:123.
Berner, R. A. 1971. Principles of Chemical Sedimentology. McGraw-Hill; New York. 240 pp.
Berner, R. A. 1980. Early Diagenesis: a theoretical approach. Princeton University Press; Princeton. 241 pp.
Berner, R. A. 1981. Authigenic mineral formation resulting from organic matter decomposition in modern sediments. Fortschritte der Mineralogie 59:117135.
Berner, R. A. 1984. Sedimentary pyrite, an update. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48:605615.
Berner, R. A. 1985. Sulphate reduction, organic matter decomposition and pyrite formation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 315A:2537.
Berner, R. A. and Raiswell, R. 1984. A new method for distinguishing freshwater from marine sedimentary rocks. Geology 12:365368.
Brett, C. E. and Baird, G. C. 1986. Comparative taphonomy: a key to paleoenvironmental interpretation based on fossil preservation. Palaois 1:207227.
Briggs, D. E. G. and Rolfe, W. D. I. 1983. New Concavocarida (new order ?Crustacea) from the Upper Devonian of Gogo, Western Australia, and the palaeoecology and affinities of the group. Special Papers in Palaeontology 30:249276.
Briggs, D. E. G., Clarkson, E. N. K., and Aldridge, R. J. 1983. The conodont animal. Lethaia 16:114.
Cisne, J. L. 1973. Anatomy of Triarthrus and the relationship of the Trilobita. Fossils and Strata 4:4564.
Clark, G. R. and Lutz, R. A. 1980. Pyritization in the shells of living bivalves. Geology 8:268271.
Coleman, M. L. 1985. Geochemistry of diagenetic non-silicate minerals: kinetic considerations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 315A:3954.
Conway Morris, S. 1979a. Burgess Shale. Pp. 153160. In Fairbridge, R. W., and Jablonski, D. (eds.), The Encyclopaedia of Paleontology. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross; Stroudsberg, Pennsylvania.
Conway Morris, S. 1979b. Middle Cambrian polychaetes from the Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 285B:227274.
Conway Morris, S. 1985. Cambrian Lagerstätten: their distribution and significance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 311B:4967.
Conway Morris, S. 1986. The community structure of the Middle Cambrian phyllopod bed (Burgess Shale). Palaeontology 29:423458.
Donovan, D. T. 1983. Mastigophora Owen 1856, a little known genus of Jurassic coleoids. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 165:484495.
Donovan, D. T. and Crane, M. In prep. Type material of Belemnotheutis in the Pearce Collection at the Bristol Museum and Art Gallery.
Ennever, J., Streckfuss, J. L., and Goldschmidt, M. C. 1981. Calcifiability comparison among selected micro-organisms. Journal of Dental Research 60:17931796.
Ferris, F. G., Fyfe, W. S., and Beverbridge, T. J. 1988. Metallic ion binding by Bacillus subtilus: implications for the fossilization of micro-organisms. Geology 16:149152.
Fisher, I. St. J. and Hudson, J. D. 1985. Pyrite geochemistry and fossil preservation in shales. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 311B:167169.
Franzen, J. L. 1985. Exceptional preservation of Eocene vertebrates in the lake deposit of Grübe Messel (West Germany). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 311B:181186.
Glob, P. V. 1969. The Bog People. Faber; London. 200 pp.
Grande, L. 1984. Paleontology of the Green River Formation, with a review of the fish fauna. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Wyoming 63:1333.
Gulbrandsen, R. A. 1969. Physical and chemical factors in the formation of marine apatite. Economic Geology 64:365382.
Hemleben, C. 1977. Rote Tiden und die Oberkretazischen Plattenkalke im Libanon. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 1977:135–113.
Huckel, U. 1970. Die Fischenschiefer von Haqel and Hjoula in der Oberkriede des Libanon. Neues Jarhbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 135:113149.
Hudson, J. D. 1982. Pyrite in ammonite-bearing shales from the Jurassic of England and Germany. Sedimentology 27:639667.
J⊘rgenson, B. B. 1982. Ecology of the bacteria of the sulphur cycle with special reference to anoxic-oxic interface environments. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B298:543561.
J⊘rgenson, B. B. 1983. Processes at the sediment-water interface. Pp. 477561. In Bolin, B., and Cook, R. B. (eds.), The Major Biochemical Cycles and Their Interactions. J. Wiley and Sons; Chichester.
Kenrick, P. and Edwards, D. 1988. The anatomy of Lower Devonian Gosslingia breconensis Heard based on pyritized axes, with some comments on the permineralization process. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 97:95123.
Knauth, L. P. 1979. A model for the origin of chert in limestone. Geology 7:274277.
Kott, R. and Wüttke, M. 1987. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie, Paläökologie und Taphonomie von Retifungus rudens Reitschel 1970 aus dem Hunsrückschiefer (Bundersrepublik Deutschland). Geologisches Jahrbuch Hessen 115:127.
Lein, A. Y. 1978. Formation of carbonate and sulfide minerals during diagenesis of reduced sediment. Pp. 339354. In Krumbein, W. E. (ed.), Environmental Biogeochemistry and Geomicrobiology. Ann Arbor Science. Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Leo, R. F. and Barghoorn, E. S. 1976. Phenolic aldehydes: generation from fossil woods and carbonaceous sediments by oxidative degradation. Science 168:582584.
Leo, R. F. and Barghoorn, E. S. 1976. Silicification of wood. Botanical Museum Leaflets of Harvard University 25:146.
Love, L. G. 1967. Early diagenetic iron sulphide in recent sediments of the Wash (England). Sedimentology 9:327352.
Lucas, J. and Prévot, L. 1984. Apatite synthesis by bacterial activity from phosphatic organic matter and several calcium carbonates in natural freshwater and seawater. Chemical Geology 42:101118.
Malcolm, S. J. and Stanley, S. O. 1982. The sediment environment. Pp. 114. In Nedwell, D. B., and Brown, C. M. (eds.), Sediment Microbiology. Academic Press; London.
Martill, D. M. 1986. The stratigraphic distribution and preservation of fossil vertebrates in the Oxford Clay of England. Mercian Geologist 10:161188.
Martill, D. M. 1987. A taphonomic and diagenetic case study of a partially articulated ichthyosaur. Palaeontology 30:543556.
Martill, D. M. 1988. The preservation of fishes in concretions from the Santanna Formation (Cretaceous) of Brazil. Palaeontology 31:118.
Müller, K. J. 1985. Exceptional preservation in calcareous nodules. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 311B:6773.
Müller, K. J. and Walossek, D. 1985. Skaracarida, a new order of Crustacea from the Upper Cambrian of Västergötland, Sweden. Fossils and Strata 17:165.
Peck, H. D. and Legall, J. 1982. Biochemistry of dissimilatory sulphate reduction. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 298B:443466.
Pinna, G. 1985. Exceptional preservation in the Jurassic of Osteno. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 311B:170180.
Raiswell, R. 1971. The growth of Cambrian and Liassic concretions. Sedimentology 17:147171.
Raiswell, R. 1976. The microbiological formation of carbonate concretions in the Upper Lias of N. E. England. Chemical Geology 18:227244.
Redfield, A. C. 1958. The biological control of chemical factors in the environment. American Scientist 48:206226.
Richardson, E. S. Jr. and Johnson, R. G. 1971. Mazon Creek faunas. Proceedings of the First North American Paleontological Convention 1:12221235.
Scott, A. C. 1979. The ecology of Coal Measure floras from northern Britain. Proceedings of the Geologists Association 90:97116.
Seilacher, A. 1970. Begriff and bedeutung der Fossil-Lagerstätten. Neues Jarhbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 1970:3439.
Seilacher, A., Reif, W.-E., and Westphal, F. 1985. Sedimentological, ecological and temporal patterns of Fossil-Lagerstätten. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 311B:523.
Sellwood, B. W. 1971. The genesis of some sideritic beds in the Yorkshire Lias (England). Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 38:854858.
Sepkoski, J. J. Jr. 1981. A factor analytic description of the Phanerozoic marine fossil record. Paleobiology 7:3653.
Shabica, C. W. 1979. Pennsylvanian sedimentation in Northern Illinois: examinatin of delta models. Pp. 1341. In Nitecki, M. H. (ed.), Mazon Creek Fossils. Academic Press; New York.
Stout, J. D., Goh, K. M., and Rafter, T. A. 1981. Chemistry and turnover of naturally occurring resistant organic compounds in soil. Soil Biochemistry 5:173.
Stürmer, W. 1985. A small coleoid cephalopod with soft-parts from the Lower Devonian discovered using radiography. Nature 318:5354.
Stürmer, W. and Bergström, J. 1973. New discoveries on trilobites by x-rays. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 47:104141.
Voight, E. 1935. Die Erhaltung von Epithelzellen mit Zellkernen, von Chromatophoren und Corium in fossiler froschhaut aus der mitteleozänen Braunkohle das Geiseltales. Nova Acta Leopoldina 3:339360.
Voight, E. 1957. Eine parasitischer Nematode in fossiler Coleopteren Muskulatur aus das eozänen Braunkohle des Geiseltales bei Halle (Saare). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 31:3539.
Wade, M. 1968. Preservation of soft-bodied animals in Pre-Cambrian sandstones at Ediacara, South Australia. Lethaia 1:238267.
Westrich, J. T. and Berner, R. A. 1984. The role of bacterial sulfate reduction: the G model tested. Limnology and Oceanography 29:236249.
Whittington, H. B. 1971. The Burgess Shale: history of research and preservation of fossils. Proceedings of the First North American Paleontological Convention 1:11761201.
Wüttke, M. 1983. Weichteil-Erhaltung durch lithifizierte Microorganismen bei mittel-eozänen Vertebraten aus den Ölschiefern der Grube Messel bei Darmstadt. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 64:509527.
Zangerl, R. 1971. On the geologic significance of perfectly preserved fossils. Proceedings of the First North American Paleontological Convention 1:12071222.
Zangerl, R. and Richardson, E. S. Jr. 1963. The paleoecological history of two Pennsylvanian black shales. Fieldianna Geology Memoir 4:1132.

Konservat-Lagerstätten: cause and classification

  • Peter A. Allison (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed