Allen, J. A. 2004. The Recent species of the genera Limatula and Limea (Bivalvia, Limacea) present in the Atlantic, with particular reference to those in deep water. Journal of Natural History 38:2591–2653.
Allen, J. A., and Turner, J. F.. 1974. On the functional morphology of the family Verticordiidae (Bivalvia) with descriptions of new species from the abyssal Atlantic. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 268:401–532.
Allmon, W. D. 2001. Nutrients, temperature, disturbance, and evolution: a model for the late Cenozoic marine record of the western Atlantic. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 166:9–26.
Allmon, W. D., Emslie, S. D., Jones, D. S., and Morgan, G. S.. 1996. Late Neogene oceanographic change along Florida’s west coast: evidence and mechanisms. Journal of Geology 104:143–162.
Almany, G. R. 2004. Does increased habitat complexity reduce predation and competition in coral reef assemblages? Oikos 106:275–284.
Anderson, L. C. 1992. Naticid gastropod predation on corbulid bivalves: effects of physical factors, morphological features, and statistical artifacts. Palaios 7:602–620.
Anderson, L. C. 1994. Paleoenvironmental control of species distributions and intraspecific variability in Neogene Corbulidae (Bivalvia: Myacea) of the Dominican Republic. Journal of Paleontology 68:460–473.
Arnaud, P. M., Troncoso, J. S., and Ramos, A.. 2001. Species diversity and assemblages of macrobenthic Mollusca from the South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Strait (Antarctica). Polar Biology 24:105–112.
Bertness, M. D. 1981. Predation, physical stress, and the organization of a tropical rocky intertidal hermit crab community. Ecology 62:411–425.
Bitter-Soto, R. 1999. Benthic communities associated to Thalassia testudinum (Hydrocharitaceae) at three localities of Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela. Revista de Biología Tropical 47:443–452.
Blois, J. L., Zarnetske, P. L., Fitzpatrick, M. C., and Finnegan, S.. 2013. Climate change and the past, present, and future of biotic interactions. Science 341:499–504.
Blois, J. L., Gotelli, N. J., Behrensmeyer, A. K., Faith, J. T., Lyons, S. K., Williams, J. W., Amatangelo, K. L., et al. 2014. A framework for evaluating the influence of climate, dispersal limitation, and biotic interactions using fossil pollen associations across the late Quaternary. Ecography 37:1095–1108.
Bohannan, B. J. M., and Lenski, R. E.. 2000. The relative importance of competition and predation varies with productivity in a model community. American Naturalist 156:329–340.
Britton, J. C. 1972. Two new species and a new subgenus of Lucinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia), with notes on certain aspects of lucinid phylogeny. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Carriker, M. 1981. Shell penetration and feeding by Naticacean and Muricacean predatory gastropods: a synthesis. Malacologia 20:403–422.
Case, T. J. 2000. An illustrated guide to theoretical ecology. Oxford University Press, New York.
Chattopadhyay, D., Zuschin, M., and Tomašových, A.. 2014. Effects of a high-risk environment on edge-drilling behavior: inference from Recent bivalves from the Red Sea. Paleobiology 40:34–49.
Chinzei, K. 1984. Ecological parallelism in shallow marine benthic associations of Neogene molluscan faunas of Japan. Geobios 17:135–143.
Coan, E. V. 1984. The Recent Crassatellinae of the eastern Pacific, with some notes on Crassinella. Veliger 26:158–160.
Coates, A. G. 1999. Lithostratigraphy of the Neogene strata of the Caribbean coast from Limon, Costa Rica, to Colon, Panama. Bulletins of American Paleontology 113:17–37.
Coates, A. G., and Stallard, R. F.. 2013. How old is the Isthmus of Panama? Bulletin of Marine Science 89:801–813.
Coates, A. G., Jackson, J. B. C., Collins, L. S., Cronin, T. M., Dowsett, H. J., Bybell, L. M., Jung, P., and Obando, J. A.. 1992. Closure of the Isthmus of Panama: the near-shore marine record of Costa Rica and western Panama. Geological Society of America Bulletin 104:814–828.
Coates, A. G., Collins, L. S., Aubry, M. P., and Berggren, W. A.. 2004. The geology of the Darien, Panama, and the late Miocene–Pliocene collision of the Panama arc with northwestern South America. Geological Society of America Bulletin 116:1327–1344.
Cronin, T. M. 1991. Pliocene shallow water paleoceanography of the North Atlantic ocean based on marine ostracodes. Quaternary Science Reviews 10:175–188.
Cronin, T. M., and Dowsett, H. J.. 1993. Prism: warm waters of the Pliocene. Geotimes 38:17–19.
Cronin, T. M., and Dowsett, H. J.. 1996. Biotic and oceanographic response to the Pliocene closing of the Central American Isthmus. Pp. 76–104 in J. B. C. Jackson, A. F. Budd, and A. G. Coates, eds. Evolution and environment in tropical America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Dando, P. R., Southward, A. J., Southward, E. C., Terwilliger, N. B., and Terwilliger, R. C.. 1985. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and hemoglobin in gills of the bivalve mollusk Myrtea spinifera. Marine Ecology Progress Series 23:85–98.
Dawson, T. P., Jackson, S. T., House, J. I., Prentice, I. C., and Mace, G. M.. 2011. Beyond predictions: biodiversity conservation in a changing climate. Science 332:53–58.
Díaz, J. M., Escobar, L. A., and Velásquez, L. E.. 1990. Reef associated molluscan fauna of the Santa Marta area, Caribbean Coast of Colombia. Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Punta Betin 19–20:173–196.
Didham, R. K., Tylianakis, J. M., Hutchison, M. A., Ewers, R. M., and Gemmell, N. J.. 2005. Are invasive species the drivers of ecological change? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20:470–474.
Dietl, G. P., and Alexander, R. R.. 2000. Post-Miocene shift in stereotypic naticid predation on confamilial prey from the Mid-Atlantic shelf: coevolution with dangerous prey. Palaios 15:414–429.
Dietl, G. P., and Herbert, G. S.. 2005. Influence of alternative shell-drilling behaviours on attack duration of the predatory snail, Chicoreus dilectus. Journal of Zoology 265:201–206.
Dietl, G. P., and Kelley, P. H.. 2002. The fossil record of predator–prey arms races: coevolution and escalation hypotheses. Paleontological Society Papers 8:353–374.
Domning, D. 2001. Sirenians, seagrasses, and Cenozoic ecological change in the Caribbean. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 166:27–50.
Elliott, J. K., and Leggett, W. C.. 1996. The effect of temperature on predation rates of a fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and a jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) on larval capelin (Mallotus villosus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53:1393–1402.
Estes, J. A., Terborgh, J., Brashares, J. S., Power, M. E., Berger, J., Bond, W. J., Carpenter, S. R., et al. 2011. Trophic downgrading of planet Earth. Science 333:301–306.
Fortunato, H., and Schafer, P.. 2009. Coralline algae as carbonate producers and habitat providers on the eastern Pacific coast of Panama: preliminary assessment. Neues Jahrbuch Geologie und Palontologie-Abhandlungen 253:145–161.
Gallegos, M., Merino, M., Marba, N., and Duarte, C.. 1993. Biomass and dynamics of Thalassia testudinum in the Mexican Caribbean: elucidating rhizome growth. Marine Ecology Progress Series 95:185–192.
Gilinsky, N., and Bennington, J.. 1994. Estimating numbers of whole individuals from collections of body parts: a taphonomic limitation of the paleontological record. Paleobiology 20:245–258.
Haaker, P. L., Duffy, J. M., Henderson, K. C., and Parker, D. O.. 1988. The speckled scallop, Argopecten circularis, in Aqua Hedionda Lagoon, San Diego County, California. California Department of Fish and Game, Long Beach, Calif.
Harper, E. M. 2006. Dissecting post-Paleozoic arms races. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 232:322–343.
Harriston, N. G., Smith, F. E., and Slobodkin, L. B.. 1960. Community structure, population control, and competition. American Naturalist 94:421–425.
Hatcher, B. G. 1988. Coral reef primary productivity: a beggar’s banquet. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 3:106–111.
Hatcher, B. G. 1990. Coral reef primary productivity: a hierarchy of pattern and process. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5:149–155.
Haug, G. H., Tiedemann, R., Zahn, R., and Ravelo, A. C.. 2001. Role of Panama uplift on Oceanic freshwater balance. Geology 29:207–210.
Hauser, I., Oschmann, W., and Gischler, E.. 2007. Modern bivalve shell assemblages on three atolls offshore Belize (Central America, Caribbean Sea). Facies 53:451–478.
Hayward, B. W., Stephenson, A. B., Morley, M., Riley, J. L., and Grenfell, H. R.. 1997. Faunal changes in Waitemata Harbour sediments, 1930s–1990s. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 27:1–20.
Hendy, A. J. W. 2013. Spatial and stratigraphic variation of marine paleoenvironments in the Middle–Upper Miocene Gatun Formation, Isthmus of Panama. Palaios 28:210–227.
Hoffman, A., Pisera, A., and Ryszkiewicz, M.. 1974. Predation by muricid and naticid gastropods on the Lower Tortonian mollusks from the Korytnica clays. Acta Geologica Polonica 24:249–264.
Holling, C. S. 1959. The components of predation as revealed by a study of small-mammal predation of the European pine sawfly. Canadian Entomologist 91:293–320.
Holt, R. D., Grove, J., and Tilman, D.. 1994. Simple rules for interspecific dominance in systems with exploitative and apparent competition. American Naturalist 144:741–771.
Huntley, J. W., and Kowalewski, M.. 2007. Strong coupling of predation intensity and diversity in the Phanerozoic fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:15006–15010.
Huntley, J. W., and Scarponi, D.. 2015. Geographic variation of parasitic and predatory traces on mollusks in the northern Adriatic Sea, Italy: implications for the stratigraphic paleobiology of biotic interactions. Paleobiology 41:134–153.
Hurlburt, S. H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54:187–211.
Jablonski, D. 2003. The interplay of physical and biotic factors in macroevolution. Pp. 235–252 in L. Rothschild and A. Lister, eds. Evolution on planet Earth. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Jackson, J. B. C. 1972. The ecology of the molluscs of Thalassia communities, Jamaica, West Indies. II. Molluscan population variability along an environmental stress gradient. Marine Biology 14:304–337.
Jackson, J. B. C. 1973. The ecology of molluscs of Thalassia Communities, Jamaica, West Indies. I. Distribution, environmental physiology, and ecology of common shallow-water species. Bulletin of Marine Science 23:313–350.
Jackson, J. B. C., and Erwin, D. H.. 2006. What can we learn about ecology and evolution from the fossil record? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:322–328.
Jackson, J. B. C., and O’Dea, A.. 2013. Timing of the oceanographic and biological isolation of the Caribbean Sea from the tropical Eastern Pacific. Bulletin of Marine Science 89:779–800.
Jackson, J. B. C., Todd, J. A., Fortunato, H., and Jung, P.. 1999. Diversity and assemblages of Neogene Caribbean Mollusca of lower Central America. Bulletin of American Paleontology 357:193–230.
Jagadeeshan, S., and O’Dea, A.. 2012. Integrating fossils and molecules to study Cupuladriid evolution in an emerging isthmus. Evolution and Ecology 26:337–355.
Johnson, K. G., Budd, A. F., and Stemann, T. A.. 1995. Extinction selectivity and ecology of Neogene Caribbean reef corals. Paleobiology 21:52–73.
Johnson, K. G., Todd, J. A., and Jackson, J. B. C.. 2007. Coral reef development drives molluscan diversity increase at local and regional scales in the late Neogene and Quaternary of the southwestern Caribbean. Paleobiology 33:24–52.
Johnson, K. G., Jackson, J. B. C., and Budd, A. F.. 2008. Caribbean reef development was independent of coral diversity over 28 million years. Science 319:1521–1523.
Joll, L. M. 1989. Swimming behaviour of the saucer scallop Amusium balloti (Mollusca: Pectinidae). Marine Biology 102:299–305.
Jones, C. C. 1984. Ventricolaria judithae n. sp. (Bivalvia, Veneridae) from the Oligocene of North Carolina, with comments on ecology. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 136:152–164.
Jones, D. S., and Allmon, W. D.. 1995. Records of upwelling, seasonality, and growth in stable-isotope profiles of Pliocene mollusk shells from Florida. Lethaia 28:61–74.
Kaunzinger, C. M. K., and Morin, P. J.. 1998. Productivity controls food-chain properties in microbial communities. Nature 1078:495–497.
Keen, A. M. 1971. Sea shells of tropical west America: marine mollusks from Baja California to Peru. Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif.
Keigwin, L. 1982. Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and East Pacific: role of Panama uplift in Late Neogene time. Science 217:350–353.
Kelley, P. H., and Hansen, T. A.. 2003. The fossil record of drilling predation on bivalves and gastropods. Pp. 113–139 in P. Kelley, M. Kowalewski, and T. Hansen, eds. Predator–Prey Interactions in the Fossil Record. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York.
Kelley, P. H., and Hansen, T. A.. 2007. Latitudinal patterns in Naticid gastropod predation along the east coast of the United States: a modern baseline for interpreting temporal patterns in the fossil record. Pp. 287–299 in R. G. Bromley, L. A. Buatois, G. Mangano, J. F. Genise, and R. N. Melchor, eds. Sediment–organism interactions: a multi-faceted ichnology (SEPM Special Publication Vol. 88). Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, Okla.
Kelley, P. H, Hansen, T. A., Graham, S. E., and Huntoon, A. G.. 2001. Temporal patterns in the efficiency of naticid gastropod predators during the Cretaceous and Cenozoic of the United States Coastal Plain. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 166:165–176.
Kitchell, J. A., Boggs, C. H., Kitchell, J. F., and Rice, J. A.. 1981. Prey selection by naticid gastropods: experimental tests and application to the fossil record. Paleobiology 7:533–552.
Kirby, M. X., and Jackson, J. B. C.. 2004. Extinction of a fast-growing oyster and changing ocean circulation in Pliocene tropical America. Geology 32:1025–1028.
Kowalewski, M. 1993. Morphometric analysis of predatory drillholes. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 102:69–88.
Kowalewski, M. 2002. The fossil record of predation: an overview of analytical methods. Paleontological Society Papers 8:3–42.
Kowalewski, M. 2004. Drill holes produced by the predatory gastropod Nucella lamellosa (Muricidae): paleobiological and ecological implications. Journal of Molluscan Studies 70:359–370.
Kowalewski, M., Hoffmeister, A. P., Baumiller, T. K., and Bambach, R. K.. 2005. Secondary evolutionary escalation between brachiopods and enemies of other prey. Science 308:1774–1777.
Lavergne, S., Mouquet, N., Thuiller, W., and Ronce, O.. 2010. Biodiversity and climate change: integrating evolutionary and ecological responses of species and communities. Annual Reviews in Ecology and Systematics 41:321–350.
Leibold, M. A. 1989. Resource edibility and the effects of predators and productivity on the outcome of trophic interactions. American Naturalist 134:922–949.
Leighton, L. R. 2002. Inferring predation intensity in the marine fossil record. Paleobiology 28:328–342.
Leonard-Pingel, J. S., and Jackson, J. B. C.. 2013. Drilling intensity varies among Neogene tropical American Bivalvia in relation to shell form and life habit. Bulletin of Marine Science 89:905–909.
Leonard-Pingel, J. S., Jackson, J. B. C., and O’Dea, A.. 2012. Changes in bivalve functional and assemblage ecology in response to environmental change in the Caribbean Neogene. Paleobiology 38:509–524.
Levin, S. A. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: the Robert H. MacArthur Award lecture. Ecology 71:1943–1967.
Lynch, M., and Lande, R.. 1993. Evolution and extinction in response to environmental change. Pp. 234–250 in P. M. Kareiva, J. G. Kingsolver, and R. B. Huey, eds. Biotic interactions and global change. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.
Martinelli, J. C., Gordillo, S., and Archuby, F.. 2013. Muricid drilling predation at high latitudes: insights from the southernmost Atlantic. Palaios 28:33–41.
Marx, F. G., and Uhen, M. D.. 2010. Climate, critters, and cetaceans: Cenozoic drivers of the evolution of modern whales. Science 327:993–996.
Mayr, E. 1961. Cause and effect in biology. Science 134:1501–1506.
Menge, B. A., and Sutherland, J. P.. 1987. Community regulation: variation in disturbance, competition, and predation in relation to environmental stress and recruitment. American Naturalist 130:730–757.
Mikkelsen, P. M., and Bieler, R.. 2001. Varicorbula (Bivalvia: Corbulidae) of the Western Atlantic: taxonomy, Anatomy, Life Habits, and Distribution. Veliger 44:271–293.
Morton, B. 1980. Swimming in Amusium pleuronectes (Bivalvia, Pectinidae). Journal of Zoology 190:375–404.
O’Dea, A., and Jackson, J. B. C.. 2009. Environmental change drove macroevolution in cupuladriid bryozoans. Procedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 276:3629–3634.
O’Dea, A., Jackson, J. B. C., Fortunato, H., Smith, J. T., D’Croz, L., Johnson, K. G., and Todd, J. A.. 2007. Environmental change preceded Caribbean extinction by 2 million years. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:5501–5506.
Odum, H. T., and Odum, E. P.. 1955. Trophic struture and productivity of a windward coral reef community on Eniwetok Atoll. Ecological Monographs 25:291–320.
Oliver, P. 1981. The functional morphology and evolution of Recent Limopsidae (Bivalvia, Arcoidea). Malacologia 21:61–93.
Olsson, A. A. 1971. Biological results of the University of Miami deep-sea expeditions: mollusks from the Gulf of Panama collected by R/V John Elliott Pillsbury, 1967. Bulletin of Marine Science 21:35–92.
Pace, M. L., Cole, J. J., Carpenter, S. R., and Kitchell, J. F.. 1999. Trophic cascades revealed in diverse ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:483–488.
Paine, R. T. 1966. Food Web Complexity and Species Diversity. American Naturalist 100:65–75.
Pereira, H. M., Leadley, P. W., Proença, V., Alkemade, R., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Fernandez-Manjarrés, J. F., Araújo, M. B., et al. 2010. Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century. Science 330:1496–1501.
Pilsbry, H. A. 1931. The Miocene and Recent Mollusca of Panama Bay. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 83:427–474.
Pires, A. M. S. 1992. Structure and dynamics of benthic megafauna on the continental shelf offshore of Ubatuba, Southeastern Brazil. Marine Ecology Progress Series 86:63–76.
Prezant, R. S. 1998. Superfamily Verticordioidea. Pp. 420–422 in P. L. Beesley, G. J. B. Ross, and A. Wells, eds. Mollusca: the southern synthesis. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.
Probert, P. K., and Grove, S. L.. 1998. Macrobenthic assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28:259–280.
Ricker, W. E. 1941. The consumption of young sockeye salmon by predaceous fish. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 5:293–313.
Riggs, S. R. 1984. Paleoceanographic model of Neogene phosphorite deposition, U.S. Atlantic continental margin. Science 223:123–131.
Roemer, G. W., Gompper, M. E., and Van Valkenburgh, B.. 2009. The ecological role of the mammalian mesocarnivore. BioScience 59:165–173.
Roopnarine, P. D. 1996. Systematics, biogeography, and extinction of Chionine bivalves (Bivalvia: Veneridae) in tropical America: Early Oligocene–Recent. Malacologia 38:103–142.
Rudnick, D. T., Elmgren, R., and Frithsen, J. B.. 1985. Meiofaunal prominence and benthic seasonality in a coastal marine ecosystem. Oecologia 67:157–168.
Sawyer, J. A., and Zuschin, M.. 2010. Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages along a transect through the northern Gulf of Trieste (Adriatic Sea). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 285:152–173.
Schindler, D.W. 1990. Experimental perturbations of whole lakes as tests of hypotheses concerning ecosystem structure and function. Oikos 57:25–41.
Shumway, S. E., and Parsons, G. J.. 2006. Scallops: biology, ecology and aquaculture. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam.
Simone, L. R. L., and Wilkinson, S.. 2008. Comparative morphological study of some Tellinidae from Thailand (Bivalvia: Tellinoidea). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 18:151–190.
Slack-Smith, S. M. 1998. Superfamily Chamoidea. Pp. 307–309 in P. L. Beesley, G. J. B. Ross, and A. Wells, eds. Mollusca: the Southern Synthesis. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia.
Smith, J. T. 2006. Ecology and environments of an extreme faunal turnover in tropical American scallops. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, San Diego, San Diego, Calif.
Smith, J. T., and Jackson, J. B. C.. 2009. Ecology of extreme faunal turnover of tropical American scallops. Paleobiology 35:77–93.
Stanley, S. M. 1970. Relation of shell form to life habits of the Bivalvia (Mollusca). Geological Society of America Memoir 125.
Stasek, C. R. 1961. The ciliation and function of the labial palps of Acila castrensis (Protobranchia, Nuculidae), with an evaluation of the role of the protobranch organs of feeding in the evolution of the Bivalvia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 137:511–538.
Taylor, J. D. 1968. Coral reef and associated invertebrate communities (mainly Molluscan) around Mahe Seychelles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 254:129–206.
Taylor, J. D., and Reid, D. G.. 1969. The abundance and trophic classification of molluscs upon coral reefs in the Sudanese Red Sea. Journal of Natural History 18:175–209.
Teranes, J. L., Geary, D. H., and Bemis, B. E.. 1996. The oxygen isotopic record of seasonality in Neogene bivalves from the Central American Isthmus. Pp. 105–129 in J. B. C. Jackson, A. F. Budd, and A. G. Coates, eds. Evolution and environment in tropical America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Terry, R. C., Cheng, L., and Hadly, E. A.. 2011. Predicting small-mammal response to climatic warming: autecology, geographic range, and the Holocene fossil record. Global Change Biology 17:3019–3034.
Thomas, R. 1975. Functional morphology, ecology, and evolutionary conservatism in the Glycymerididae (Bivalvia). Palaeontology 18:217–258.
Thomas, R. D. K. 1978. Shell form and ecological range of living and extinct Arcoida. Paleobiology 4:181–194.
Todd, J. A., and Johnson, K. G.. 2013. Dissecting a marine snail species radiation (Conoidea: Turridae: Polystira) over 12 million years in the southwestern Caribbean. Bulletin of Marine Science 89:877–904.
Todd, J. A., Jackson, J. B. C., Johnson, K. G., Fortunato, H. M., Heitz, A., Alvarez, M., and Jung, P.. 2002. The ecology of extinction: molluscan feeding and faunal turnover in the Caribbean Neogene. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:571–577.
Urban, H. J., and Campos, B.. 1994. Population dynamics of the bivalves Gari solida, Semele solida, and Protothaca thaca from a small bay in Chile at 36 degrees S. Marine Ecology Progress Series 115:93–102.
Vermeij, G. J. 1977. The Mesozoic marine revolution: evidence from snails, predators, and grazers. Paleobiology 3:245–258.
Vermeij, G. J. 1987. Evolution and escalation. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.
Vermeij, G. J., and Petuch, E.. 1986. Differential extinction in tropical American molluscs: endemism, architecture, and the Panama land bridge. Malacologia 27:29–41.
Vermeij, G. J., Schindel, D. E., and Zipser, E.. 1981. Predation through geological time: evidence from gastropod shell repair. Science 214:1024–1026.
Vrba, E. S. 2005. Mass turnover and heterochrony events in response to physical change. Paleobiology 31:157–174.
Walker, S. 2007. Traces of gastropod predation on molluscan prey in tropical reef environments. Pp. 324–344 in W. Miller, ed. Trace fossils: concepts, problems, and prospects. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Woodring, W. P. 1966. The Panama land bridge as a sea barrier. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 110:425–433.
Wootton, J. T., Parker, M. S., and Power, M. E.. 1996. Effects of disturbance on river food webs. Science 273:1558–1561.
Work, R. C. 1969. Systematics, ecology, and distribution of mollusks of Los Roques, Venezuela. Bulletin of Marine Science 19:614–711.
Yonge, C. M. 1946. On the habits and adaptations of Aloidis (Corbula) gibba. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 26:358–376.
Yonge, C. M. 1969. Functional morphology and evolution within the Carditacea (Bivalvia). Journal of Molluscan Studies 38:493–527.
Yonge, C. M. 1978. Dimyidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) with special reference to Dimya corrugata Hedley and Basiliomya goreaui Bayer. Journal of Molluscan Studies 44:357–375.
Zieman, J. C., and Wetzel, R. G.. 1980. Methods and rates of productivity in seagrasses. Pp. 87–116. in R. C. Phillips, and G. P. McRoy, eds. Handbook of seagrass biology Garland. New York.
Zuschin, M., Hohenegger, J., and Steininger, F. F.. 2001. Molluscan assemblages on coral reefs and associated hard substrata in the northern Red Sea. Coral Reefs 20:107–116.