Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Child and adolescent nutrient intakes from current national dietary surveys of European populations

  • Holly L. Rippin (a1), Jayne Hutchinson (a1), Jo Jewell (a2), Joao J. Breda (a2) and Janet E. Cade (a1)...

Abstract

The WHO encourages national diet survey (NDS) implementation to obtain relevant data to inform policies addressing all forms of malnutrition, which remains a pressing issue throughout Europe. This paper provides an up-to-date review on energy, macro- and selected micronutrient intakes in children across WHO Europe using the latest available NDS intakes. It assesses these against WHO recommended nutrient intakes (RNI) to highlight vulnerable groups and areas of concern. Dietary survey information was gathered by Internet searches, contacting survey authors and nutrition experts. Survey characteristics, energy and nutrient intakes were extracted and weighted means calculated and presented by region. Child energy and nutrient intakes were extracted from twenty-one NDS across a third (n 18) of the fifty-three WHO Europe countries. Of these, 38 % (n 6) reported intakes by socio-economic group, but by various indicators. Energy and macronutrients, where boys and older children had higher intakes, were more widely reported than micronutrients. Most countries met under half of the WHO RNI for nutrients reported in their NDS. Micronutrient attainment was higher than macronutrients, but worst in girls and older children. Only a third, mainly Western, WHO European member states provided published data on child nutrient intakes. Gaps in provision mean that dietary inadequacies may go unidentified, preventing evidence-based policy formation. WHO RNI attainment was poor, particularly in girls and older children. Inconsistent age groups, dietary methodologies, nutrient composition databases and under-reporting hinder inter-country comparisons. Future efforts should encourage countries to conduct NDS in a standardised format by age and sociodemographic variables.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Child and adolescent nutrient intakes from current national dietary surveys of European populations
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Child and adolescent nutrient intakes from current national dietary surveys of European populations
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Child and adolescent nutrient intakes from current national dietary surveys of European populations
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Holly L. Rippin, email fshr@leeds.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1. World Health Organization (2014) European Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2015–2020. Copengagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/253727/64wd14e_FoodNutAP_140426.pdf (accessed September 2018).
2. World Health Organization (2016) 9th Meeting of the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) Meeting Report. Copenhagen: WHO.
3. Alwan, A (2011) Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization.
4. World Health Organization (2014) Infographic – 1 in 3 11-year-olds is overweight or obese. Copenhagen: WHO. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/obesity/data-and-statistics/infographic-1-in-3-11-year-olds-is-overweight-or-obese-download (accessed September 2018).
5. World Health Organization (2017) Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) Protocol. Copenhagen: WHO.
6. Rippin, HL, Hutchinson, J, Evans, CE, et al. (2018) National nutrition surveys in Europe: a review on the current status in the 53 countries of the WHO European region. Food Nutr Res 2018, 62.
7. Novaković, R, Cavelaars, AE, Bekkering, GE, et al. (2013) Micronutrient intake and status in Central and Eastern Europe compared with other European countries, results from the EURRECA network. Public Health Nutr 16, 824840.
8. Del Gobbo, LC, Khatibzadeh, S, Imamura, F, et al. (2015) Assessing global dietary habits: a comparison of national estimates from the FAO and the Global Dietary Database. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 10381046.
9. Merten, C, Ferrari, P, Bakker, M, et al. (2011) Methodological characteristics of the national dietary surveys carried out in the European Union as included in the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 28, 975995.
10. Lim, SS, Vos, T, Flaxman, AD, et al. (2013) A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380, 22242260.
11. Volatier, J-L, Biltoft-Jensen, A, De Henauw, S, et al. (2007) A new reference method for the validation of the nutrient profiling schemes using dietary surveys. Eur J Nutr 46, 2936.
12. Rippin, HL, Hutchinson, J, Jewell, J, et al. (2017) Adult nutrient intakes from current national dietary surveys of European populations. Nutrients 9, 1288.
13. EFCOSUM Group (2001) European Food Consumption Survey Method: Final Report. Zeist: TNO Nutrition and Food Research.
14. Micha, R, Khatibzadeh, S, Shi, P, et al. (2014) Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys. BMJ 348, g2272.
15. World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. World Health Organization Technical Report Series, no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
16. World Health Organization & Food and Agricultural Organization (2004) Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Human Nutrition, WHO Expert Consultation. Geneva: WHO.
17. World Health Organization (2012) Guideline: Potassium Intake for Adults and Children. Geneva: WHO.
18. World Health Organization (2012) Guideline: Sodium Intake for Adults and Children. Geneva: WHO.
19. World Health Organization (2015) Guideline: Sugars Intake for Adults and Children. Geneva: WHO.
20. World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization & United Nations University (2004) Human Energy Requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Rome: FAO.
21. Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom: Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy, vol. 41. London: H. M. Stationery Office.
22. Eurostat (2015) Population by single year of age and NUTS 3 region. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database (accessed October 2017).
23. Turkish Statistical Institute (2013) Statistics on Child, 2012. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=13488 (accessed October 2017).
24. UNICEF (2013) Statstics. At a glance. www.unicef.org/infobycountry/ (accessed October 2017).
25. World Health Organization (2017) Data and statistics: the challenge of obesity – quick statistics. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/obesity/data-and-statistics (accessed October 2017).
26. Lien, N, Henriksen, HB, Nymoen, LL, et al. (2010) Availability of data assessing the prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among European adolescents. Public Health Nutr 13, 16801687.
27. Wijnhoven, T, van Raaij, J & Breda, JJ (2014) WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: Implementation of Round 1 (2007/2008) and Round 2 (2009/2010). Copenhagen: WHO.
28. Inchley, J, Currie, D, Jewell, J, et al. (2017) Adolescent Obesity and Related Behaviours: Trends and Inequalities in the WHO European Region, 2002–2014. Copenhagen: WHO.
29. World Health Organization (2018) Childhood obesity surveillance initiative: HIGHLIGHTS 2015–17. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/372426/wh14-cosi-factsheets-eng.pdf?ua=1 (accessed June 2018).
30. Popkin, BM, Adair, LS & Ng, SW (2012) Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr Rev 70, 321.
31. Lavie, CJ, Milani, RV, Mehra, MR, et al. (2009) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol 54, 585594.
32. Bath, SC, Steer, CD, Golding, J, et al. (2013) Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Lancet 382, 331337.
33. Andersson, M, Karumbunathan, V & Zimmermann, MB (2012) Global iodine status in 2011 and trends over the past decade. J Nutr 142, 744750.
34. Aranceta, J & Pérez-Rodrigo, C (2012) Recommended dietary reference intakes, nutritional goals and dietary guidelines for fat and fatty acids: a systematic review. Br J Nutr 107, S8S22.
35. Harris, WS, Mozaffarian, D, Rimm, E, et al. (2009) Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease. Circulation 119, 902907.
36. Innis, SM (2007) Dietary (n-3) fatty acids and brain development. J Nutr 137, 855859.
37. Rothausen, B, Matthiessen, J, Groth, M, et al. (2012) Comparison of estimated energy intake from 2× 24-hour recalls and a seven-day food record with objective measurements of energy expenditure in children. Food Nutr Res 56, 12221.
38. Lioret, S, Touvier, M, Balin, M, et al. (2011) Characteristics of energy under-reporting in children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 105, 16711680.
39. Albar, SA, Alwan, NA, Evans, CE, et al. (2014) Is there an association between food portion size and BMI among British adolescents? Br J Nutr 112, 841851.
40. Mann, J, Cummings, J, Englyst, H, et al. (2007) FAO/WHO scientific update on carbohydrates in human nutrition: conclusions. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, S132S137.
41. Tognon, G, Hebestreit, A, Lanfer, A, et al. (2014) Mediterranean diet, overweight and body composition in children from eight European countries: cross-sectional and prospective results from the IDEFICS study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 24, 205213.
42. Department of Health (2014) F3(a). Non use of artificial trans fat. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20180201181321/https://responsibilitydeal.dh.gov.uk/pledges/pledge/?pl=29 (accessed September 2018).
43. Restrepo, BJ & Rieger, M (2016) Denmark’s policy on artificial trans fat and cardiovascular disease. Am J Prev Med 50, 6976.
44. World Health Organization (2015) Eliminating trans fats in Europe: a policy brief. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/288442/Eliminating-trans-fats-in-Europe-A-policy-brief.pdf?ua=1 (accessed April 2016).
45. Hercberg, S, Preziosi, P & Galan, P (2001) Iron deficiency in Europe. Public Health Nutr 4, 537545.
46. Lambert, J, Agostoni, C, Elmadfa, I, et al. (2004) Dietary intake and nutritional status of children and adolescents in Europe. Br J Nutr 92, S147S211.
47. Allgrove, J & Mughal, MZ (2014) Calcium deficiency rickets: extending the spectrum of ‘nutritional’ rickets. Arch Dis Child 99, 794795.
48. Michaelsen, KF, Weaver, L, Branca, F, et al. (2000) Feeding and Nutrition of Infants and Young Children. Copenhagen: WHO.
49. Prentice, A (2013) Nutritional rickets around the world. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 136, 201206.
50. Pearce, EN, Andersson, M & Zimmermann, MB (2013) Global iodine nutrition: where do we stand in 2013? Thyroid 23, 523528.
51. Blundell, JE, Baker, JL, Boyland, E, et al. (2017) Variations in the prevalence of obesity among European countries, and a consideration of possible causes. Obes Facts 10, 2537.
52. Mongeau, R & Brassard, R (1989) A comparison of three methods for analyzing dietary fiber in 38 foods. J Food Comp Anal 2, 189199.
53. Mensink, G, Fletcher, R, Gurinovic, M, et al. (2013) Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe. Br J Nutr 110, 755773.
54. Elmadfa, I, Hasenegger, V, Wagner, K, et al. (2012) Österreichischer Ernährungsbericht 2012 (Austrian Nutrition Report 2012). Vienna: Institut für Ernährungswissenschaften.
55. Bel, S, Van den Abeele, S, Lebacq, T, et al. (2016) Protocol of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey 2014: objectives, design and methods. Arch Public Health 74, 20.
56. De Ridder, K, Lebacq, T, Ost, C, et al. (2016) Enquête de Consommation Alimentaire 2014–2015. Rapport 4: La Consommation Alimentaire (Food Consumption Survey 2014–2015. Report 4: Food Consumption). Brussels: WIV-ISP.
57. Petrova, S, Baikova, D, Angelova, K, et al. (2010) Nutrition in children 1–5 years of age in Bulgaria – energy and macronutrient intake. Bulg J Public Health 2, 5565.
58. Petrova, S, Rangelova, L, Duleva, V, et al. (2010) Nutrition in children 1–5 years of age in Bulgaria – micronutrient intake. Bulg J Public Health 2, 6673.
59. Petrova, S, Rangelova, L, Duleva, V, et al. (2010) Design and methodology of national survey on nutrition of infants and children under 5 years of age and family child rearing in Bulgaria. Bulg J Public Health 2, 111.
60. Tornaritis, MJ, Philippou, E, Hadjigeorgiou, C, et al. (2014) A study of the dietary intake of Cypriot children and adolescents aged 6–18 years and the association of mother’s educational status and children’s weight status on adherence to nutritional recommendations. BMC Public Health 14, 13.
61. Pedersen, A, Christensen, T, Matthiessen, J, et al. (2015) Danskernes Kostvaner 2011–2013. Hovedresultater (Diet of the Danes 2011–2013. Main Results). Søborg, Denmark: DTU Fødevareinstitute.
62. National Institute for Health Development (Estonia) (2017) National Dietary Survey among children up to ten years old and breastfeeding mothers in Estonia. EFSA External Scientific Report. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/sp.efsa.2017.EN-1199 (accessed August 2018).
63. National Institute for Health Development (Estonia) (2017) National Dietary Survey among 11–74 years old individuals in Estonia. EFSA External Scientific Report. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2903/sp.efsa.2017.EN-1198 (accessed August 2018).
64. Anses (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety) (2017) Étude individuelle nationale des consommations alimentaires 3 (INCA 3) (National individual study of food consumption 3 (INCA 3)). https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/NUT2014SA0234Ra.pdf (accessed August 2018).
65. Hartmann, BM, Heuer, T & Hoffmann, I (2015) The German Nutrient Database: effect of different versions on the calculated energy and nutrient intake of the German population. J Food Comp Anal 42, 2629.
66. Nationale Verzehrsstudie, II (2008) Ergebnisbericht Teil 1 (Results Report Part 1). Karlsruhe: Max Rubner-Institut.
67. Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance (2012) National Pre-school Food Survey. https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/46a7ad27/files/uploaded/The%20National%20Pre-School%20Nutrition%20Survey%20%282010-2011%29.pdf (accessed August 2018).
68. Walton, J, Kehoe, L, McNulty, B, et al. (2017) Nutrient intakes and compliance with nutrient recommendations in children aged 1–4 years in Ireland. J Hum Nutr Diet 30, 665676.
69. Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance (2007) The National Teen’s Food Survey (2005–2006). https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/46a7ad27/files/uploaded/The%20National%20Teens%27%20Food%20Survey%20%282005-2006%29.pdf (accessed August 2018).
70. Joyce, T & Gibney, M (2008) The impact of added sugar consumption on overall dietary quality in Irish children and teenagers. J Hum Nutr Diet 21, 438450.
71. Joyce, T, Wallace, AJ, McCarthy, SN, et al. (2009) Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults. Public Health Nutr 12, 156165.
72. Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance (2005) The National Children’s Food Survey (2003–2004). https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/46a7ad27/files/uploaded/The%20National%20Childrens%27%20Food%20Survey%20%282003-2004%29_HxoVce4NQFqSgDs8ScVd.pdf (accessed August 2018).
73. Sette, S, Le Donne, C, Piccinelli, R, et al. (2011) The Third Italian National Food Consumption Survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005–06 – Part 1: Nutrient intakes in Italy. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, 922932.
74. Joffe, R, Ozolinš, G, Šantare, D, et al. (2009) The National Food Consumption Survey of Latvia, 2007–2009. Riga: Zemkopibas Ministrija.
75. Van Rossum, C, Fransen, H, Verkaik-Kloosterman, J, et al. (2011) Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010: Part 6 Micronutrients. Bilthoven: Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM).
76. Van Rossum, C, Fransen, H, Verkaik-Kloosterman, J, et al. (2011) Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010: Part 5 Macronutrients. Bilthoven: Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM).
77. Van Rossum, C, Fransen, H, Verkaik-Kloosterman, J, et al. (2011) Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010: Diet of children and adults aged 7 to 69 years, vol. RIVM Rapport 350050006. Bilthoven: Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM).
78. Ocke, M, van Rossum, C, Fransen, H, et al. (2008) Dutch National Food Consumption Survey Young Children 2005/2006. Voedselconsumptiepeiling bij peuters en kleuters 2005/2006. Bilthoven: Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM).
79. Hansen, L, Myhre, J & Andersen, LF (2016) UNGKOST 3 Landsomfattende kostholdsundersøkelse blant 4-åringer i Norge, 2016 (UNGKOST 3 Nationwide Dietary Survey Among 4-year-olds in Norway, 2016). Oslo: Folkehelseinstituttet (Public Health Institute).
80. Hansen, L, Myhre, J, Johansen, A, et al. (2015) UNGKOST 3 Landsomfattende kostholdsundersøkelse blant elever i 4. -og 8. klasse i Norge, 2015 (UNGKOST 3 Nationwide Dietary Survey Among Pupils of 4- and 8-class in Norway. 2015). Oslo: Folkehelseinstituttet (Public Health Institute).
81. Lopes, C, Torres, D, Oliveira, A, et al. (2017) Inquérito Alimentar Nacional e de Atividade Física IAN-AF, 2015–2016: Relatório metodológico Parte I (National Food and Physical Activity Survey IAN-AF 2015–2016: Methodological Report Part 1). Porto: University of Porto. https://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/bitstream/10216/111087/2/257106.pdf (accessed August 2018).
82. Lopes, C, Torres, D, Oliveira, A, et al. (2017) Inquérito Alimentar Nacional e de Atividade Física IAN-AF, 2015–2016: Parte II Relatório (National Food and Physical Activity Survey IAN-AF 2015–2016: Part 2 Report). Porto: University of Porto. http://ciafel.fade.up.pt/modules/file_repository/data/Site/relatorio_resultados_ian_af.pdf (accessed August 2018).
83. Fidler Mis, N, Kobe, H & Štimec, M (2012) Dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients in Slovenian adolescents: comparison with reference values. Ann Nutr Metab 61, 305313.
84. Moreiras, GV, Ávila, JM & Ruiz, E (2015) Energy balance, a new paradigm and methodological issues: The ANIBES Study in Spain. Nutr Hosp 31, 101112.
85. Ruiz, E, Ávila, JM, Castillo, A, et al. (2015) The ANIBES Study on energy balance in Spain: design, protocol and methodology. Nutrients 7, 970998.
86. Ruiz, E, Ávila, JM, Valero, T, et al. (2016) Macronutrient distribution and dietary sources in the Spanish population: findings from the ANIBES Study. Nutrients 8, 177.
87. Güler, S, Budakoğlu, I, Besler, H, et al. (2014) Methodology of National Turkey Nutrition and Health Survey (TNHS) 2010. Med J Islamic World Acad Sci 22, 729.
88. Turkey Ministry of Health (2014) Türkiye Beslenme ve Sağlık Araştırması 2010: Beslenme Durumu ve Alışkanlıklarının Değerlendirilmesi Sonuç Raporu (Turkey Nutrition and Health Survey 2010: Evaluation of Nutritional Status and Habits Results Report). Istanbul: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Sağlık Bakanlığı Sağlık.
89. Bates, B, Lennox, A, Prentice, A, et al. (editors) (2014) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Results from Years 1, 2, 3 and 4 Combined of the Rolling Program (2008/2009 – 2011/2012). London: Public Health England.

Keywords

Child and adolescent nutrient intakes from current national dietary surveys of European populations

  • Holly L. Rippin (a1), Jayne Hutchinson (a1), Jo Jewell (a2), Joao J. Breda (a2) and Janet E. Cade (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed