Eccles, SA, Aboagye, EO, Ali, S, et al. (2013) Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 15, R92.
Arnold, M, Karim-Kos, HE, Coebergh, JW, et al. (2015) Recent trends in incidence of five common cancers in 26 European countries since 1988: analysis of the European Cancer Observatory. Eur J Cancer 51, 1164–1187.
Rahib, L, Smith, BD, Aizenberg, R, et al. (2014) Projecting cancer incidence and deaths to 2030: the unexpected burden of thyroid, liver, and pancreas cancers in the United States. Cancer Res 74, 2913–2921.
Colditz, GA & Bohlke, K (2014) Priorities for the primary prevention of breast cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 64, 186–194.
DeSantis, C, Siegel, R, Bandi, P, et al. (2011) Breast cancer statistics, 2011. CA Cancer J Clin 61, 409–418.
Metcalfe, K, Lubinski, J, Lynch, HT, et al. (2010) Family history of cancer and cancer risks in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. J Natl Cancer Inst 102, 1874–1878.
Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (2012) Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol 13, 1141–1151.
Gierisch, JM, Coeytaux, RR, Urrutia, RP, et al. (2013) Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast, cervical, colorectal, and endometrial cancers: a systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22, 1931–1943.
Ritte, R, Tikk, K, Lukanova, A, et al. (2013) Reproductive factors and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a cohort study. BMC Cancer 13, 584.
Anders, CK, Johnson, R, Litton, J, et al. (2009) Breast cancer before age 40 years. Semin Oncol 36, 237–249.
Ferlay, J, Shin, HR, Bray, F, et al. (2010) Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer 127, 2893–2917.
Narod, SA (2012) Breast cancer in young women. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 9, 460–470.
Brinton, LA, Sherman, ME, Carreon, JD, et al. (2008) Recent trends in breast cancer among younger women in the United States. J Natl Cancer Inst 100, 1643–1648.
Johnson, RH, Chien, FL & Bleyer, A (2013) Incidence of breast cancer with distant involvement among women in the United States, 1976 to 2009. JAMA 309, 800–805.
Azim, HA Jr & Partridge, AH (2014) Biology of breast cancer in young women. Breast Cancer Res 16, 427.
Collins, LC, Marotti, JD, Gelber, S, et al. (2012) Pathologic features and molecular phenotype by patient age in a large cohort of young women with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 131, 1061–1066.
Voogd, AC, Nielsen, M, Peterse, JL, et al. (2001) Differences in risk factors for local and distant recurrence after breast-conserving therapy or mastectomy for stage I and II breast cancer: pooled results of two large European randomized trials. J Clin Oncol 19, 1688–1697.
Anders, CK, Hsu, DS, Broadwater, G, et al. (2008) Young age at diagnosis correlates with worse prognosis and defines a subset of breast cancers with shared patterns of gene expression. J Clin Oncol 26, 3324–3330.
Knaul, F, Bustreo, F, Ha, E, et al. (2009) Breast cancer: why link early detection to reproductive health interventions in developing countries? Salud Publica Mex 51, Suppl. 2, s220–s227.
Costa, M & Saldanha, P (2017) Risk reduction strategies in breast cancer prevention. Eur J Breast Health 13, 103–112.
Heller, MC, Keoleian, GA & Willett, WC (2013) Toward a life cycle-based, diet-level framework for food environmental impact and nutritional quality assessment: a critical review. Environ Sci Technol 47, 12632–12647.
Jacobs, DR Jr, Gross, MD & Tapsell, LC (2009) Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1543S–1548S.
Jaffee, EM, Dang, CV, Agus, DB, et al. (2017) Future cancer research priorities in the USA: a Lancet Oncology Commission. Lancet Oncol 18, e653–e706.
Schwingshackl, L & Hoffmann, G (2014) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Cancer 135, 1884–1897.
Schwingshackl, L & Hoffmann, G (2015) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Med 4, 1933–1947.
Sofi, F, Macchi, C, Abbate, R, et al. (2014) Mediterranean diet and health status: an updated meta-analysis and a proposal for a literature-based adherence score. Public Health Nutr 17, 2769–2782.
Schwingshackl, L & Hoffmann, G (2016) Does a Mediterranean-type diet reduce cancer risk? Curr Nutr Rep 5, 9–17.
Simopoulos, AP (2001) The Mediterranean diets: what is so special about the diet of Greece? The scientific evidence. J Nutr 131, 3065S–3073S.
Willett, WC, Sacks, F, Trichopoulou, A, et al. (1995) Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 1402S–1406S.
da Silva, R, Bach-Faig, A, Raido Quintana, B, et al. (2009) Worldwide variation of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in 1961–1965 and 2000–2003. Public Health Nutr 12, 1676–1684.
Buckland, G, Travier, N, Cottet, V, et al. (2013) Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort study. Int J Cancer 132, 2918–2927.
Kant, AK (1996) Indexes of overall diet quality: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 785–791.
Trichopoulou, A, Martinez-Gonzalez, MA, Tong, TY, et al. (2014) Definitions and potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet: views from experts around the world. BMC Med 12, 112.
Milner, JA (2004) Molecular targets for bioactive food components. J Nutr 134, 2492S–2498S.
Trichopoulou, A, Bamia, C, Lagiou, P, et al. (2010) Conformity to traditional Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk in the Greek EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 620–625.
Griffiths, K, Aggarwal, BB, Singh, RB, et al. (2016) Food antioxidants and their anti-inflammatory properties: a potential role in cardiovascular diseases and cancer prevention. Diseases 4, E28.
Carruba, G, Cocciadiferro, L, Di Cristina, A, et al. (2016) Nutrition, aging and cancer: lessons from dietary intervention studies. Immun Ageing 13, 13.
Hernandez-Ruiz, A, Garcia-Villanova, B, Guerra Hernandez, EJ, et al. (2015) Description of indexes based on the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern: a review. Nutr Hosp 32, 1872–1884.
Reedy, J, Krebs-Smith, SM, Miller, PE, et al. (2014) Higher diet quality is associated with decreased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality among older adults. J Nutr 144, 881–889.
Martinez-Gonzalez, MA, Garcia-Arellano, A, Toledo, E, et al. (2012) A 14-item Mediterranean diet assessment tool and obesity indexes among high-risk subjects: the PREDIMED trial. PLOS ONE 7, e43134.
Bamia, C, Martimianaki, G, Kritikou, M, et al. (2017) Indexes for assessing adherence to a Mediterranean diet from data measured through brief questionnaires: issues raised from the analysis of a Greek population study. Curr Dev Nutr 1, e000075.
Trichopoulou, A, Kouris-Blazos, A, Wahlqvist, ML, et al. (1995) Diet and overall survival in elderly people. BMJ 311, 1457–1460.
Trichopoulou, A, Costacou, T, Bamia, C, et al. (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 348, 2599–2608.
Schroder, H, Marrugat, J, Vila, J, et al. (2004) Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with body mass index and obesity in a Spanish population. J Nutr 134, 3355–3361.
Ajala, O, English, P & Pinkney, J (2013) Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 505–516.
White, AJ, Nichols, HB, Bradshaw, PT, et al. (2015) Overall and central adiposity and breast cancer risk in the Sister Study. Cancer 121, 3700–3708.
Laudisio, D, Muscogiuri, G, Barrea, L, et al. (2018) Obesity and breast cancer in premenopausal women: current evidence and future perspectives. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 230, 217–221.
van den Brandt, PA & Schulpen, M (2017) Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: results of a cohort study and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 140, 2220–2231.
Fung, TT, Hu, FB, McCullough, ML, et al. (2006) Diet quality is associated with the risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 136, 466–472.
Butler, LM, Wu, AH, Wang, R, et al. (2010) A vegetable–fruit–soy dietary pattern protects against breast cancer among postmenopausal Singapore Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1013–1019.
Couto, E, Sandin, S, Lof, M, et al. (2013) Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer. PLOS ONE 8, e55374.
Demetriou, CA, Hadjisavvas, A, Loizidou, MA, et al. (2012) The Mediterranean dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in Greek-Cypriot women: a case–control study. BMC Cancer 12, 113.
Cade, JE, Taylor, EF, Burley, VJ, et al. (2011) Does the Mediterranean dietary pattern or the Healthy Diet Index influence the risk of breast cancer in a large British cohort of women? Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 920–928.
Schwingshackl, L, Schwedhelm, C, Galbete, C, et al. (2017) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 9, E1063.
Castello, A, Pollan, M, Buijsse, B, et al. (2014) Spanish Mediterranean diet and other dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: case–control EpiGEICAM study. Br J Cancer 111, 1454–1462.
Castello, A, Boldo, E, Perez-Gomez, B, et al. (2017) Adherence to the Western, Prudent and Mediterranean dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: MCC-Spain study. Maturitas 103, 8–15.
Murtaugh, MA, Sweeney, C, Giuliano, AR, et al. (2008) Diet patterns and breast cancer risk in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women: the Four-Corners Breast Cancer Study. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 978–984.
Turati, F, Carioli, G, Bravi, F, et al. (2018) Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk. Nutrients 10, E326.
Freudenheim, JL, Marshall, JR, Vena, JE, et al. (1996) Premenopausal breast cancer risk and intake of vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients. J Natl Cancer Inst 88, 340–348.
Boggs, DA, Palmer, JR, Wise, LA, et al. (2010) Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of breast cancer in the Black Women’s Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 172, 1268–1279.
Turati, F, Rossi, M, Pelucchi, C, et al. (2015) Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk: a review of southern European studies. Br J Nutr 113, Suppl. 2, S102–S110.
Kang, JH & Grodstein, F (2008) Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols and cognitive function: a prospective study. Neurobiol Aging 29, 1394–1403.
Elliott, R (2005) Mechanisms of genomic and non-genomic actions of carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1740, 147–154.
Ben-Dor, A, Steiner, M, Gheber, L, et al. (2005) Carotenoids activate the antioxidant response element transcription system. Mol Cancer Ther 4, 177–186.
Stahl, W & Sies, H (2005) Bioactivity and protective effects of natural carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1740, 101–107.
Rutz, JK, Borges, CD, Zambiazi, RC, et al. (2016) Elaboration of microparticles of carotenoids from natural and synthetic sources for applications in food. Food Chem 202, 324–333.
Gloria, NF, Soares, N, Brand, C, et al. (2014) Lycopene and β-carotene induce cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. Anticancer Res 34, 1377–1386.
Karas, M, Amir, H, Fishman, D, et al. (2000) Lycopene interferes with cell cycle progression and insulin-like growth factor I signaling in mammary cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 36, 101–111.
Prakash, P, Russell, RM & Krinsky, NI (2001)
In vitro inhibition of proliferation of estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent human breast cancer cells treated with carotenoids or retinoids. J Nutr 131, 1574–1580.
Abdal Dayem, A, Choi, HY, Yang, GM, et al. (2016) The anti-cancer effect of polyphenols against breast cancer and cancer stem cells: molecular mechanisms. Nutrients 8, E581.
Perron, NR & Brumaghim, JL (2009) A review of the antioxidant mechanisms of polyphenol compounds related to iron binding. Cell Biochem Biophys 53, 75–100.
Mackenzie, GG & Oteiza, PI (2006) Modulation of transcription factor NF-κB in Hodgkin’s lymphoma cell lines: effect of (–)-epicatechin. Free Radic Res 40, 1086–1094.
Mackenzie, GG, Carrasquedo, F, Delfino, JM, et al. (2004) Epicatechin, catechin, and dimeric procyanidins inhibit PMA-induced NF-κB activation at multiple steps in Jurkat T cells. FASEB J 18, 167–169.
Chou, CC, Yang, JS, Lu, HF, et al. (2010) Quercetin-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis involving activation of a caspase cascade through the mitochondrial pathway in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Arch Pharm Res 33, 1181–1191.
Limer, JL & Speirs, V (2004) Phyto-oestrogens and breast cancer chemoprevention. Breast Cancer Res 6, 119–127.
Brueggemeier, RW, Hackett, JC & Diaz-Cruz, ES (2005) Aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer. Endocr Rev 26, 331–345.
Chan, HY, Wang, H & Leung, LK (2003) The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A modulates the biotransformation pathways of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Br J Nutr 90, 87–92.
Ye, L, Gho, WM, Chan, FL, et al. (2009) Dietary administration of the licorice flavonoid isoliquiritigenin deters the growth of MCF-7 cells overexpressing aromatase. Int J Cancer 124, 1028–1036.
Suzuki, R, Iwasaki, M, Hara, A, et al. (2013) Fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Cancer Causes Control 24, 2117–2128.
Farvid, MS, Chen, WY, Michels, KB, et al. (2016) Fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ 353, i2343.
Park, Y, Brinton, LA, Subar, AF, et al. (2009) Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 664–671.
Huang, T, Xu, M, Lee, A, et al. (2015) Consumption of whole grains and cereal fiber and total and cause-specific mortality: prospective analysis of 367,442 individuals. BMC Med 13, 59.
Yu, H & Rohan, T (2000) Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression. J Natl Cancer Inst 92, 1472–1489.
Probst-Hensch, NM, Wang, H, Goh, VH, et al. (2003) Determinants of circulating insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations in a cohort of Singapore men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12, 739–746.
Kerver, JM, Gardiner, JC, Dorgan, JF, et al. (2010) Dietary predictors of the insulin-like growth factor system in adolescent females: results from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). Am J Clin Nutr 91, 643–650.
Rose, DP, Goldman, M, Connolly, JM, et al. (1991) High-fiber diet reduces serum estrogen concentrations in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 520–525.
Ma, Y, Hebert, JR, Li, W, et al. (2008) Association between dietary fiber and markers of systemic inflammation in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Nutrition 24, 941–949.
Topping, DL & Clifton, PM (2001) Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiol Rev 81, 1031–1064.
Nilsson, AC, Ostman, EM, Knudsen, KE, et al. (2010) A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning. J Nutr 140, 1932–1936.
King, DE, Egan, BM, Woolson, RF, et al. (2007) Effect of a high-fiber diet vs a fiber-supplemented diet on C-reactive protein level. Arch Intern Med 167, 502–506.
Deschasaux, M, Zelek, L, Pouchieu, C, et al. (2013) Prospective association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk. PLOS ONE 8, e79718.
Chatenoud, L, Tavani, A, La Vecchia, C, et al. (1998) Whole grain food intake and cancer risk. Int J Cancer 77, 24–28.
Nicodemus, KK, Jacobs, DR Jr & Folsom, AR (2001) Whole and refined grain intake and risk of incident postmenopausal breast cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 12, 917–925.
Egeberg, R, Olsen, A, Loft, S, et al. (2009) Intake of whole grain products and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status and histology among postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer 124, 745–750.
Aune, D, Chan, DS, Vieira, AR, et al. (2012) Fruits, vegetables and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Breast Cancer Res Treat 134, 479–493.
Cade, JE, Burley, VJ, Greenwood, DC, et al. (2007) Dietary fibre and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol 36, 431–438.
Farvid, MS, Cho, E, Eliassen, AH, et al. (2016) Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 159, 335–345.
Ferrari, P, Rinaldi, S, Jenab, M, et al. (2013) Dietary fiber intake and risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 344–353.
Mourouti, N, Kontogianni, MD, Papavagelis, C, et al. (2016) Whole grain consumption and breast cancer: a case–control study in women. J Am Coll Nutr 35, 143–149.
Sangaramoorthy, M, Koo, J & John, EM (2018) Intake of bean fiber, beans, and grains and reduced risk of hormone receptor-negative breast cancer: the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study. Cancer Med 7, 2131–2144.
Psaltopoulou, T, Kosti, RI, Haidopoulos, D, et al. (2011) Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13,800 patients and 23,340 controls in 19 observational studies. Lipids Health Dis 10, 127.
Garcia-Segovia, P, Sanchez-Villegas, A, Doreste, J, et al. (2006) Olive oil consumption and risk of breast cancer in the Canary Islands: a population-based case–control study. Public Health Nutr 9, 163–167.
Sotiroudis, TG & Kyrtopoulos, SA (2008) Anticarcinogenic compounds of olive oil and related biomarkers. Eur J Nutr 47, Suppl. 2, 69–72.
Menendez, JA, Vazquez-Martin, A, Garcia-Villalba, R, et al. (2008) tabAnti-HER2 (erbB-2) oncogene effects of phenolic compounds directly isolated from commercial extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). BMC Cancer 8, 377.
Servili, M, Esposto, S, Fabiani, R, et al. (2009) Phenolic compounds in olive oil: antioxidant, health and organoleptic activities according to their chemical structure. Inflammopharmacology 17, 76–84.
Servili, M (2002) Contribution of phenolic compounds to virgin olive oil quality. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 104, 602–613.
Gonzalez-Santiago, M, Martin-Bautista, E, Carrero, JJ, et al. (2006) One-month administration of hydroxytyrosol, a phenolic antioxidant present in olive oil, to hyperlipemic rabbits improves blood lipid profile, antioxidant status and reduces atherosclerosis development. Atherosclerosis 188, 35–42.
Marrugat, J, Covas, MI, Fito, M, et al. (2004) Effects of differing phenolic content in dietary olive oils on lipids and LDL oxidation – a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 43, 140–147.
Puel, C, Mardon, J, Agalias, A, et al. (2008) Major phenolic compounds in olive oil modulate bone loss in an ovariectomy/inflammation experimental model. J Agric Food Chem 56, 9417–9422.
Han, J, Talorete, TP, Yamada, P, et al. (2009) Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Cytotechnology 59, 45–53.
Richard, N, Arnold, S, Hoeller, U, et al. (2011) Hydroxytyrosol is the major anti-inflammatory compound in aqueous olive extracts and impairs cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages. Planta Med 77, 1890–1897.
Liu, CH, Chang, SH, Narko, K, et al. (2001) Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 is sufficient to induce tumorigenesis in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem 276, 18563–18569.
Zhao, Y, Agarwal, VR, Mendelson, CR, et al. (1996) Estrogen biosynthesis proximal to a breast tumor is stimulated by PGE2 via cyclic AMP, leading to activation of promoter II of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene. Endocrinology 137, 5739–5742.
Harris, RE, Robertson, FM, Abou-Issa, HM, et al. (1999) Genetic induction and upregulation of cyclooxygenase (COX) and aromatase (CYP19): an extension of the dietary fat hypothesis of breast cancer. Med Hypotheses 52, 291–292.
Lawrence, T (2009) The nuclear factor NF-κB pathway in inflammation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 1, a001651.
Scoditti, E, Calabriso, N, Massaro, M, et al. (2012) Mediterranean diet polyphenols reduce inflammatory angiogenesis through MMP-9 and COX-2 inhibition in human vascular endothelial cells: a potentially protective mechanism in atherosclerotic vascular disease and cancer. Arch Biochem Biophys 527, 81–89.
La Vecchia, C, Negri, E, Franceschi, S, et al. (1995) Olive oil, other dietary fats, and the risk of breast cancer (Italy). Cancer Causes Control 6, 545–550.
Harvey, JA & Bovbjerg, VE (2004) Quantitative assessment of mammographic breast density: relationship with breast cancer risk. Radiology 230, 29–41.
Torres-Mejia, G, De Stavola, B, Allen, DS, et al. (2005) Mammographic features and subsequent risk of breast cancer: a comparison of qualitative and quantitative evaluations in the Guernsey prospective studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 1052–1059.
Pollan, M, Ascunce, N, Ederra, M, et al. (2013) Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer according to tumor characteristics and mode of detection: a Spanish population-based case–control study. Breast Cancer Res 15, R9.
Boyd, NF, Rommens, JM, Vogt, K, et al. (2005) Mammographic breast density as an intermediate phenotype for breast cancer. Lancet Oncol 6, 798–808.
Boyd, NF, Martin, LJ, Yaffe, MJ, et al. (2011) Mammographic density and breast cancer risk: current understanding and future prospects. Breast Cancer Res 13, 223.
García-Arenzana, N, Navarrete-Munoz, EM, Lope, V, et al. (2014) Calorie intake, olive oil consumption and mammographic density among Spanish women. Int J Cancer 134, 1916–1925.
Zheng, JS, Hu, XJ, Zhao, YM, et al. (2013) Intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of data from 21 independent prospective cohort studies. BMJ 346, f3706.
Haraldsdottir, A, Steingrimsdottir, L, Valdimarsdottir, UA, et al. (2017) Early life residence, fish consumption, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 26, 346–354.
Rigon, E, Saggia, C, Rossi, V, et al. (2015) FISH in triple-negative breast cancer: a possible strategy for the future? Future Oncol 11, 1023–1026.
Anderson, BM & Ma, DW (2009) Are all n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids created equal? Lipids Health Dis 8, 33.
Anderson, BM, MacLennan, MB, Hillyer, LM, et al. (2014) Lifelong exposure to n-3 PUFA affects pubertal mammary gland development. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 39, 699–706.
Erickson, KL & Hubbard, NE (2010) Fatty acids and breast cancer: the role of stem cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 82, 237–241.
Chen, Z, Zhang, Y, Jia, C, et al. (2014) mTORC1/2 targeted by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Oncogene 33, 4548–4557.
Larsson, SC, Kumlin, M, Ingelman-Sundberg, M, et al. (2004) Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 935–945.
Burdge, GC & Calder, PC (2005) Conversion of α-linolenic acid to longer-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human adults. Reprod Nutr Dev 45, 581–597.
Young, LR, Kurzer, MS, Thomas, W, et al. (2011) Effect of dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids on urinary eicosanoids and sex hormone concentrations in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled feeding trial. Nutr Cancer 63, 930–939.
Hardman, WE (2002) Omega-3 fatty acids to augment cancer therapy. J Nutr 132, 3508S–3512S.
Wojcik, C, Lohe, K, Kuang, C, et al. (2014) Modulation of adipocyte differentiation by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids involves the ubiquitin–proteasome system. J Cell Mol Med 18, 590–599.
Horia, E & Watkins, BA (2005) Comparison of stearidonic acid and α-linolenic acid on PGE2 production and COX-2 protein levels in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell cultures. J Nutr Biochem 16, 184–192.
Goodstine, SL, Zheng, T, Holford, TR, et al. (2003) Dietary (n-3)/(n-6) fatty acid ratio: possible relationship to premenopausal but not postmenopausal breast cancer risk in U.S. women. J Nutr 133, 1409–1414.
Kim, J, Lim, SY, Shin, A, et al. (2009) Fatty fish and fish omega-3 fatty acid intakes decrease the breast cancer risk: a case–control study. BMC Cancer 9, 216.
Wakai, K, Tamakoshi, K, Date, C, et al. (2005) Dietary intakes of fat and fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: a prospective study in Japan. Cancer Sci 96, 590–599.
Murff, HJ, Shu, XO, Li, H, et al. (2011) Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk in Chinese women: a prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer 128, 1434–1441.
Allen, NE, Beral, V, Casabonne, D, et al. (2009) Moderate alcohol intake and cancer incidence in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 101, 296–305.
Smith-Warner, SA, Spiegelman, D, Yaun, SS, et al. (1998) Alcohol and breast cancer in women: a pooled analysis of cohort studies. JAMA 279, 535–540.
Chen, WY, Rosner, B, Hankinson, SE, et al. (2011) Moderate alcohol consumption during adult life, drinking patterns, and breast cancer risk. JAMA 306, 1884–1890.
Boyd, NF, Martin, LJ, Li, Q, et al. (2006) Mammographic density as a surrogate marker for the effects of hormone therapy on risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 961–966.
Byrne, C, Webb, PM, Jacobs, TW, et al. (2002) Alcohol consumption and incidence of benign breast disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 1369–1374.
Flom, JD, Ferris, JS, Tehranifar, P, et al. (2009) Alcohol intake over the life course and mammographic density. Breast Cancer Res Treat 117, 643–651.
Abraham, J, Balbo, S, Crabb, D, et al. (2011) Alcohol metabolism in human cells causes DNA damage and activates the Fanconi anemia-breast cancer susceptibility (FA-BRCA) DNA damage response network. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35, 2113–2120.
Marietta, C, Thompson, LH, Lamerdin, JE, et al. (2009) Acetaldehyde stimulates FANCD2 monoubiquitination, H2AX phosphorylation, and BRCA1 phosphorylation in human cells in vitro: implications for alcohol-related carcinogenesis. Mutat Res 664, 77–83.
Brooks, PJ & Theruvathu, JA (2005) DNA adducts from acetaldehyde: implications for alcohol-related carcinogenesis. Alcohol 35, 187–193.
Shufelt, C, Merz, CN, Yang, Y, et al. (2012) Red versus white wine as a nutritional aromatase inhibitor in premenopausal women: a pilot study. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 21, 281–284.
Zhu, W, Qin, W, Zhang, K, et al. (2012)
Trans-resveratrol alters mammary promoter hypermethylation in women at increased risk for breast cancer. Nutr Cancer 64, 393–400.
Lagouge, M, Argmann, C, Gerhart-Hines, Z, et al. (2006) Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1α. Cell 127, 1109–1122.
Cosan, D, Soyocak, A, Basaran, A, et al. (2009) The effects of resveratrol and tannic acid on apoptosis in colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Saudi Med J 30, 191–195.
Ruotolo, R, Calani, L, Fietta, E, et al. (2013) Anti-estrogenic activity of a human resveratrol metabolite. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23, 1086–1092.
Bessaoud, F & Daures, JP (2008) Patterns of alcohol (especially wine) consumption and breast cancer risk: a case–control study among a population in Southern France. Ann Epidemiol 18, 467–475.
Fagherazzi, G, Vilier, A, Boutron-Ruault, MC, et al. (2015) Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk subtypes in the E3N-EPIC cohort. Eur J Cancer Prev 24, 209–214.
Felton, JS, Knize, MG, Salmon, CP, et al. (2002) Human exposure to heterocyclic amine food mutagens/carcinogens: relevance to breast cancer. Environ Mol Mutagen 39, 112–118.
Lauber, SN, Ali, S & Gooderham, NJ (2004) The cooked food derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine is a potent oestrogen: a mechanistic basis for its tissue-specific carcinogenicity. Carcinogenesis 25, 2509–2517.
Santarelli, RL, Pierre, F & Corpet, DE (2008) Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence. Nutr Cancer 60, 131–144.
Diallo, A, Deschasaux, M, Partula, V, et al. (2016) Dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk: modulation by an antioxidant supplementation. Oncotarget 7, 79008–79016.
Linos, E, Willett, WC, Cho, E, et al. (2008) Red meat consumption during adolescence among premenopausal women and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 2146–2151.
Taylor, VH, Misra, M & Mukherjee, SD (2009) Is red meat intake a risk factor for breast cancer among premenopausal women? Breast Cancer Res Treat 117, 1–8.
Farvid, MS, Cho, E, Chen, WY, et al. (2015) Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 136, 1909–1920.
Diallo, A, Deschasaux, M, Latino-Martel, P, et al. (2018) Red and processed meat intake and cancer risk: results from the prospective NutriNet-Sante cohort study. Int J Cancer 142, 230–237.
Awad, AB, Chan, KC, Downie, AC, et al. (2000) Peanuts as a source of β-sitosterol, a sterol with anticancer properties. Nutr Cancer 36, 238–241.
Kris-Etherton, PM, Hecker, KD, Bonanome, A, et al. (2002) Bioactive compounds in foods: their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Am J Med 113, Suppl. 9B, 71s–88s.
Gonzalez, CA & Salas-Salvado, J (2006) The potential of nuts in the prevention of cancer. Br J Nutr 96, Suppl. 2, S87–S94.
van den Brandt, PA & Nieuwenhuis, L (2018) Tree nut, peanut, and peanut butter intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: the Netherlands Cohort Study. Cancer Causes Control 29, 63–75.
Liu, Y, Colditz, GA, Cotterchio, M, et al. (2014) Adolescent dietary fiber, vegetable fat, vegetable protein, and nut intakes and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat 145, 461–470.
Bessaoud, F, Daures, JP & Gerber, M (2008) Dietary factors and breast cancer risk: a case control study among a population in Southern France. Nutr Cancer 60, 177–187.
Norhaizan, ME, Ng, SK, Norashareena, MS, et al. (2011) Antioxidant and cytotoxicity effect of rice bran phytic acid as an anticancer agent on ovarian, breast and liver cancer cell lines. Malays J Nutr 17, 367–375.
Adebamowo, CA, Cho, E, Sampson, L, et al. (2005) Dietary flavonols and flavonol-rich foods intake and the risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 114, 628–633.