Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Parametrization of intensive global climate change indicators on a level of sovereign states and governments

  • Micha Tomkiewicz (a1)

Abstract

This article will show that within well-defined error margins, carbon intensities and energy intensities are independent of the population and GDP of countries and thus can serve as a convenient parametrization of humanity on a sovereign level.

The IPCC, in its fifth international report, states that the two leading contributions to changes in annual CO2 emissions by decade are the changes in population and changes in GDP/capita, which reflect changes in standard of living. This article will show that within well-defined error margins, carbon intensities, and energy intensities (both with respect to GDP) are independent of the population and GDP of countries and thus can serve as a convenient parametrization of humanity. With some imagination, these parameters can serve as input and output indicators that connect the physical environment with the human environment. The article will show that both indicators fit lognormal distribution well without any outliers. The data are based on the World Bank database. Comparing the global distribution with individual world-bank indicators of world-bank country grouping based on socioeconomic conditions quantifies the contributions of global income distribution.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a)Address all correspondence to Micha Tomkiewicz at michatom@brooklyn.cuny.edu

References

Hide All
1.Tomkiewicz, M.: Energy and sustainability, from the point of view of environmental physics. MRS Energy Sustain. 2, 113 (2015).
2.Zalasiewicz, J., Waters, C.N., Summerhayes, C.P., Wolfe, A.P., Barnosky, A.D., Cearreta, A., Crutzen, P., Ellis, E., Fairchild, I.J., Gałuszka, A., Haff, P., Hajdas, I., Head, M.J., Ivar do Sul, J.A., Jeandel, C., Leinfelder, R., McNeill, J.R., Neal, C., Odada, E., Oreskes, N., Steffen, W., Syvitski, J., Vidas, D., Wagreich, M., and Williams, M.: The working group on the Anthropocene: Summary of evidence and interim recommendations. Anthropocene 19, 55 (2017).
3.IPCC: Available at: http://IPCC.ch/reports/SR15 (accessed May 15, 2019).
4.World Bank Indicators: Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator (accessed May 15, 2019).
5.Green, M.L., Espinal, L., Traversa, E., and Amis, E.J.: Materials for sustainable development. MRS Bull. 37, 303 (2012).
6.AR5: Fifth Synthesis Report. Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5 (accessed May 15, 2019).
8.Wikipedia: Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/log-normal_distribution (accessed May 15, 2019).
9.Limpert, E., Stahel, W.A., and Abbt, M.: Log-normal distribution across the sciences: Keys and clues. BioScience 51, 341 (2001).
10.Sun, K.: Explanation of log-normal distribution and power-law distributions in biology and social science. Available at: http://guava.physics.uiuc.edu/∼nigel/courses/569/Essays_2004/files/sun.pdf (accessed May 15, 2019).
11.Razumovsky, N.K.: Distribution of metal values in ore deposits. C. R. (Dokl.) Acad. Sci. URSS 9, 814 (1940).
12.Ahrens, L.H.: The log-normal distribution of the elements. Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta 5, 49 (1954).
13.Malance, A., Gaidolfi, L., Pessina, V., and Dallara, G.: Specific activities and radioactive contour maps of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples (Patong, Kamala, Kata, Karon and Nai Yang) after tsunami disaster in Phuket province, Thailand. J. Environ. Radioact. 30, 55 (1996).
14.Kondo, K.: The log-normal distribution of the incubation time of exogenous diseases. Jpn. J. Hum. Genet. 21, 217237 (1977).
15.Boag, J.W.: Maximum likelihood estimates of the proportion of patients cured by cancer therapy. J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B 11, 15 (1949).
16.Feinleib, M. and McMahon, B.: Variation in the duration of survival of patients with the chronic leukemia. Blood 15, 332 (1960).
17.Horner, R.D.: Age at onset of Alzheimer’s disease: Clue toto the relative importance of etiologic factors? Am. J. Epidemiol. 126, 409414 (1987).
18.Preston, F.W.: The commonness and rarity of species. Ecology 29, 254283 (1948).
19.May, R.M.: Patterns in multi-species communities. In Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications, May, R.M. and McLean, A.R., eds. (Blackwell, Oxford, U.K., 1981); pp. 197227.
20.Magurran, A.E.: Ecological Diversity and its Measurement (Croom Helm, London, U.K., 1988).
21.Williams, C.B.: A note on the statistical analysis of sentence length as a criterion of literary style. Biometrika 31, 356361 (1940).
22.Preston, F.W.: Pseudo-log-normal distributions. Ecology 62, 355364 (1981).
23.Allanson, P.: Farm size structure in England and Wales. J. Agric. Econ. 43, 137148 (1992).
24.UN Conference on Sustainable Development: Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Conference_on_Sustainable_Development (accessed May 15, 2019).
25.Kuznets, S.: Economic growth and income inequality. Am. Econ. Rev. 45, 128 (1955).
26.Selden, T. and Song, D.: Environmental quality and development: Is there a Kuznets curve for air pollution emissions? J. Environ. Econ. Manage. 27, 147162 (1994).
27.Hank Hilton, F.G. and Levinson, A.: Factoring the environmental Kuznets curve: Evidence from automotive lead emissions. J. Environ. Econ. Manage. 35, 126141 (1998).
28.John Wood, P.: Climate change and game theory. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1219, 153170 (2011).
29.EIS: Available at: http://web.evs.anl.gov/uranium/eis/whatiseis/index.cfm (accessed May 15, 2019).
31.Park, A. and Ravenel, C.: Integrating sustainability into capital markets. Bloomberg LP and ESG’s quantitative legitimacy. J. Appl. Corp. Finance 25, 62 (2013).
32.National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Valuing Climate Damages: Updating Estimation of the Social Cost of Carbon Dioxide (The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2017). doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24651.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed