Skip to main content Accessibility help

Future of dynamic random-access memory as main memory

  • Seong Keun Kim (a1) and Mihaela Popovici (a2)


Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is the main memory in most current computers. The excellent scalability of DRAM has significantly contributed to the development of modern computers. However, DRAM technology now faces critical challenges associated with further scaling toward the ∼10-nm technology node. This scaling will likely end soon because of the inherent limitations of charge-based memory. Much effort has been dedicated to delaying this. Novel cell architectures have been designed to reduce the cell area, and new materials and process technologies have been extensively investigated, especially for dielectrics and electrodes related to charge storage. In this article, the current issues, recent progress in and the future of DRAM materials, and fabrication technologies are discussed.



Hide All
1.Hwang, C.S., Adv. Electron. Mater. 1, 1400056 (2015).
2.International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (2013),
3.Kim, J.Y., Lee, C.S., Kim, S.E., Chung, I.B., Choi, Y.M., Park, B.J., Lee, J.W., Kim, D.I., Hwang, Y.S., Hwang, D.S., Hwang, H.K., Park, J.M., Kim, D.H., Kang, N.J., Cho, M.H., Jeong, M.Y., Kim, H.J., Han, J.N., Kim, S.Y., Nam, B.Y., Park, H.S., Chung, S.H., Lee, J.H., Park, J.S., Kim, H.S., Park, Y.J., Kim, K., Symp. VLSI Technol. Dig. Tech. Pap. (2003), p. 11.
4.Kim, J.V., Oh, H.J., Woo, D.S., Lee, Y.S., Kim, D.H., Kim, S.E., Ha, G.W., Kim, H.J., Kang, N.J., Park, J.M., Hwang, Y.S., Kim, D.I., Park, B.J., Huh, M., Lee, B.H., Kim, S.B., Cho, M.H., Jung, M.Y., Kim, Y.I., Jin, C., Shin, D.W., Shim, M.S., Lee, C.S., Lee, W.S., Park, J.C., Jin, G.Y., Park, Y.J., Kim, K., Symp. VLSI Technol. Dig. Tech. Pap. (2005), p. 34.
5.Lee, C., Park, J.C., Park, S.H., Lee, S.S., Hong, S.D., Kim, I.G., Choi, Y.J., Lee, T.W., Jin, G.Y., Kim, K., International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (Tsukuba, Japan, 2007), p. 228.
6.Park, K.-H., Han, K.-R., Lee, J.-H., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 26, 690 (2005).
7.Yang, C.M., Wei, C.K., Chang, Y.J., Wu, T.C., Chen, H.P., Lai, C.S., IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 16, 685 (2016).
8.Hwang, C.S., Kim, S.K., Lee, S.W., in Atomic Layer Deposition for Semiconductors, Hwang, C.S., Ed. (Springer, Boston, 2014), chap. 4.
9.Schloesser, T., Jakubowski, F., Kluge, J.V., Graham, A., Slesazeck, S., Popp, M., Baars, P., Muemmler, K., Moll, P., Wilson, K., Buerke, A., Koehler, D., Radecker, J., Erben, E., Zimmermann, U., Vorrath, T., Fischer, B., Aichmayr, G., Agaiby, R., Pamler, W., Schster, T., Bergner, W., Mueller, W., Proc. IEEE Int. Electron Dev. Mtg. (IEDM) (San Francisco, CA, 2008), p. 1.
10.Chung, H., Kim, H., Kim, H., Kim, K., Kim, S., Song, K.W., Kim, J., Oh, Y.C., Hwang, Y., Hong, H., Jin, G.Y., Chung, C., Proc. Eur. Solid-State Dev. Res. Conf. (ESSDERC) (IEEE, Helsinki, Finland, 2011), p. 211.
11.Kim, S.K., Lee, S.W., Han, J.H., Lee, B., Han, S., Hwang, C.S., Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 2989 (2010).
12.Kim, S.K., Kim, W.D., Kim, K.M., Hwang, C.S., Jeong, J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4112 (2004).
13.Fröhlich, K., Aarik, J., Ťapajna, M., Rosová, A., Aidla, A., Dobročka, E., Hušková, K., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27, 266 (2009).
14.Menou, N., Popovici, M., Clima, S., Opsomer, K., Polspoel, W., Kaczer, B., Rampelberg, G., Tomida, K., Pawlak, M.A., Detavernier, C., Pierreux, D., Swerts, J., Maes, J.W., Manger, D., Badylevich, M., Afanasiev, V., Conard, T., Favia, P., Bender, H., Brijs, B., Vandervorst, W., Elshocht, S.V., Pourtois, G., Wouters, D.J., Biesemans, S., Kittl, J.A., J. Appl. Phys. 106, 094101 (2009).
15.Popovici, M., Kim, M.-S., Tomida, K., Swerts, J., Tielens, H., Moussa, A., Richard, O., Bender, H., Franquet, A., Conard, T., Altimime, L., Elshocht, S.V., Kittl, J.A., Microelectron. Eng. 88, 1517 (2011).
16.Pawlak, M.A., Swerts, J., Popovici, M., Kaczer, B., Kim, M.-S., Wang, W.-C., Tomida, K., Govoreanu, B., Delmotte, J., Afanas’ev, V.V., Schaekers, M., Vandervorst, W., Kittl, J.A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 042901 (2012).
17.Swerts, J., Popovici, M., Kaczer, B., Aoulaiche, M., Redolfi, A., Clima, S., Caillat, C., Wang, W.C., Afanas’ev, V.V., Jourdan, N., Olk, C., Hody, H., Elshocht, S.V., Jurczak, M., IEEE Electron Device Lett. 35, 753 (2014).
18.Kim, S.K., Kim, K.M., Jeong, D.S., Jeon, W., Yoon, K.J., Hwang, C.S., J. Mater. Res. 28, 313 (2013).
19.Kuesters, K.H., Beug, M.F., Schroeder, U., Nagel, N., Bewersdorff, U., Dallmann, G., Jakschik, S., Knoefler, R., Kudelka, S., Ludwig, C., Manger, D., Mueller, W., Tilke, A., Adv. Eng. Mater. 11, 241 (2009).
20.Knebel, S., Pešić, M., Cho, K., Chang, J., Lim, H., Kolomiiets, N., Afanas’ev, V.V., Muehle, U., Schroeder, U., Mikolajick, T., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 224102 (2015).
21.Kil, D.S., Song, H.S., Lee, K.J., Hong, K., Kim, J.H., Park, K.S., Yeom, S.J., Roh, J.S., Kwak, N.J., Sohn, H.C., Kim, J.W., Park, S.W., Symp. VLSI Technol. Dig. Tech. Pap. (2006), p. 38.
22.Robertson, J., Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 265 (2004).
23.Popovici, M., Van Elshocht, S., Menou, N., Swerts, J., Pierreux, D., Delabie, A., Brijs, B., Conard, T., Opsomer, K., Maes, J.W., Wouters, D.J., Kittl, J.A., J. Electrochem. Soc. 157, G1 (2010).
24.Kil, D.S., Lee, J.M., Roh, J.S., Chem. Vap. Depos. 8, 195 (2002).
25.Kosola, A., Putkonen, M., Johansson, L.-S., Niinistö, L., Appl. Surf. Sci. 211, 102 (2003).
26.Kwon, O.S., Kim, S.K., Cho, M., Hwang, C.S., Jeong, J., J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C229 (2005).
27.Kwon, O.S., Lee, S.W., Han, J.H., Hwang, C.S., J. Electrochem. Soc. 154, G127 (2007).
28.Lee, W., Han, J.H., Jeon, W., Yoo, Y.W., Lee, S.W., Kim, S.K., Ko, C.H., Lansalot-Matras, C., Hwang, C.S., Chem. Mater. 25, 953 (2013).
29.Longo, V.V., Leick, N.N., Roozeboom, F.F., Kessels, W.E., ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 2, N15 (2013).
30.Popovici, M., Kaczer, B., Afanas’ev, V.V., Sereni, G., Larcher, L., Redolfi, A., Elshocht, S.V., Jurczak, M., Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 10, 420 (2016).
31.Lee, S.W., Han, J.H., Han, S., Lee, W., Jang, J.H., Seo, M., Kim, S.K., Dussarrat, C., Gatineau, J., Min, Y.-S., Hwang, C.S., Chem. Mater. 23, 2227 (2011).
32.Lee, W., Han, J.H., Lee, S.W., Han, S., Jeon, W.J., Hwang, C.S., J. Mater. Chem. 22, 15037 (2012).
33.Lee, W., Jeon, W., An, C.H., Chung, M.J., Kim, H.J., Eom, T., George, S.M., Park, B.K., Han, J.H., Kim, C.G., Chung, T.-M., Lee, S.W., Hwang, C.S., Chem. Mater. 27, 3881 (2015).
34.Kim, S.K., Lee, S.Y., Seo, M., Choi, G.J., Hwang, C.S., J. Appl. Phys. 102, 024109 (2007).
35.Kim, W.D., Hwang, G.W., Kwon, O.S., Kim, S.K., Cho, M., Jeong, D.S., Lee, S.W., Seo, M.H., Hwang, C.S., Min, Y.S., Cho, Y.J., J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C552 (2005).
36.Kadoshima, M., Hiratani, M., Shimamoto, Y., Torii, K., Miki, H., Kimura, S., Nabatame, T., Thin Solid Films 424, 224 (2003).
37.Popovici, M., Swerts, J., Tomida, K., Radisic, D., Kim, M.-S., Kaczer, B., Richard, O., Bender, H., Delabie, A., Moussa, A., Vrancken, C., Opsomer, K., Franquet, A., Pawlak, M.A., Schaekers, M., Altimime, L., Van Elshocht, S., Kittl, J.A., Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 5, 19 (2011).
38.Kim, S.K., Hwang, G.W., Kim, W.D., Hwang, C.S., Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9, F5 (2006).
39.Kim, S.K., Choi, G.J., Lee, S.Y., Seo, M., Lee, S.W., Han, J.H., Ahn, H.S., Han, S., Hwang, C.S., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008).
40.Kim, S.K., Choi, G.J., Kim, J.H., Hwang, C.S., Chem. Mater. 20, 3723 (2008).
41.Jeon, W., Yoo, S., Kim, H.K., Lee, W., An, C.H., Chung, M.J., Cho, C.J., Kim, S.K., Hwang, C.S., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 21632 (2014).
42.Choi, G.J., Kim, S.K., Won, S.J., Kim, H.J., Hwang, C.S., J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, G138 (2009).
43.Chen, S., Liu, Z., Feng, L., Che, X., Zhao, X., J. Rare Earths 32, 580 (2014).
44.Kim, W.-H., Kim, M.-K., Oh, I.-K., Maeng, W.J., Cheon, T., Kim, S.-H., Noori, A., Thompson, D., Chu, S., Kim, H., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97, 1164 (2014).
45.Govindarajan, S., Böscke, T.S., Sivasubramani, P., Kirsch, P.D., Lee, B.H., Tseng, H.-H., Jammy, R., Schröder, U., Ramanathan, S., Gnade, B.E., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062906 (2007).
46.Lamagna, L., Wiemer, C., Baldovino, S., Molle, A., Perego, M., Schamm-Chardon, S., Coulon, P.E., Fanciulli, M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 122902 (2009).
47.Park, B.-E., Oh, I.-K., Mahata, C., Lee, C.W., Thompson, D., Lee, H.-B.-R., Maeng, W.J., Kim, H., J. Alloys Compd. 722, 307 (2017).
48.Popovici, M., Swerts, J., Redolfi, A., Kaczer, B., Aoulaiche, M., Radu, I., Clima, S., Everaert, J.-L., Elshocht, S.V., Jurczak, M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 082908 (2014).
49.Padmanabhan, R., Mohan, S., Morozumi, Y., Kaushal, S., Bhat, N., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 63, 3928 (2016).
50.Shin, Y., Min, K.K., Lee, S.-H., Lim, S.K., Oh, J.S., Lee, K.-J., Hong, K., Cho, B.J., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 173505 (2011).
51.Ahn, J.-H., Kwon, S.-H., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7, 15587 (2015).
52.Yim, K., Yong, Y., Lee, J., Lee, K., Nahm, H.-H., Yoo, J., Lee, C., Hwang, C.S., Han, S., NPG Asia Mater. 7, e190 (2015).
53.Lee, W.C., Cho, C.J., Kim, S., Larsen, E.S., Yum, J.H., Bielawski, C.W., Hwang, C.S., Kim, S.K., J. Phys. Chem. C 121, 17498 (2017).
54.Swerts, J., Delabie, A., Salimullah, M.M., Popovici, M., Kim, M.-S., Schaekers, M., Van Elshocht, S., ECS Solid State Lett. 1, P19 (2012).
55.Han, J.H., Lee, S.W., Choi, G.-J., Lee, S.Y., Hwang, C.S., Dussarrat, C., Gatineau, J., Chem. Mater. 21, 207 (2009).
56.Choi, G.J., Kim, S.K., Lee, S.Y., Park, W.Y., Seo, M., Choi, B.J., Hwang, C.S., J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, G71 (2009).
57.Kim, J.-Y., Kil, D.-S., Kim, J.-H., Kwon, S.-H., Ahn, J.-H., Roh, J.-S., Park, S.-K., J. Electrochem. Soc. 159, H560 (2012).
58.Han, J.H., Han, S., Lee, W., Lee, S.W., Kim, S.K., Gatineau, J., Dussarrat, C., Hwang, C.S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 022901 (2011).
59.Kim, J.-H., Kil, D.-S., Yeom, S.-J., Roh, J.-S., Kwak, N.-J., Kim, J.-W., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 052908 (2007).
60.Schmelzer, S., Bräuhaus, D., Hoffmann-Eifert, S., Meuffels, P., Böttger, U., Oberbeck, L., Reinig, P., Schröder, U., Waser, R., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 132907 (2010).
61.Popescu, D., Popescu, B., Jegert, G., Schmelzer, S., Boettger, U., Lugli, P., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 61, 2130 (2014).
62.Cho, C.J., Noh, M.-S., Lee, W.C., An, C.H., Kang, C.-Y., Hwang, C.S., Kim, S.K., J. Mater. Chem. C 5, 9405 (2017).


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Future of dynamic random-access memory as main memory

  • Seong Keun Kim (a1) and Mihaela Popovici (a2)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.