X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the
surface chemical composition of atmospheric particles (PM-10 and
PM-2.5), collected in downtown Katowice, Upper Silesia, Poland, in the
winter season (November and December 2000). Carbon- and
oxygen-containing species dominated the particulate surface with traces
of N, S, Si, Cl, Na, Zn, Al, Cu, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, Pb, and P present.
Additionally, the size, morphology, and chemical composition of about
300 of the individual atmospheric particles were analyzed by
high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and electron probe
microanalysis. A number of aluminosilicates and metallic elements such
as Fe, K, Mg, Zn, as well as rare earth elements, were detected by SEM.
The results obtained show that the analyzed aerosol is of natural and
anthropogenic origin. Particles containing sulfur compounds as well as
oxygen and sodium in downtown Katowice come mainly from the east and